Season & Climate


Cultivation Practices

Irrigation Management

Nutrient Management

Pest and Disease

Post Harvest Technology

Banana Processing

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Season & Climate

How to select a planting material?

There are two types of planting materials

The commonly used propagation material is sucker or corms. The sucker should be a sword sucker, with narrow leaves of 3 to 4 months old, weighing 1.5 to 2 Kgs. The suckers should be of uniform size, selected from disease free plantations. • Recently tissue cultured plants are becoming popular due to its disease free nature and potential for high yield. An ideal tissue culture plant should be about 30 cm height with 5 to 6 developed leaves having proper orientation. The leaves should not exhibit any malformation and chlorotic streaks.

What are the precautions to be taken at the time of planting?

  • If the planting material is a sucker, the roots should be trimmed and pared-off all tissues on the surface to make it free of nematode infestations. The pared corm should be dipped in a solution containing for 30 minutes. Alternatively application of 40g of Carbofuran in the soil at planting.

  • For tissue culture plants, especially Robusta and Cavendish varieties should be applied with 10g Carbofuran and drenched with 0.1% Emisan to control nematodes and bacterial rot disease respectively in the polybag itself before planting.

What kind of soil is suitable for banana cultivation?

  • Loamy textured soil with at least 2 m. depth and proper drainage facilities is suitable for banana cultivation.

  • The slope of the land should be <1%. There should not be subsurface hard pans and calcarious layers.

  • The gravel content of the soil should not exceed 5%.

What types of soils are most suitable for Banana crop?

Grows well on free draining soils with steady supply of moisture.

What are the Effects of low Temperature?

The problems which result in a banana plantation from low winter temperatures serve to only emphasize the importance of adequate heat as a factor, in banana production. • The most important of these are 'choke throat' 'November dump' and frost damage.

What are the suitable varieties grown well in Wetland?

The suitable varities grown well in wetland are Poovan, Rasthalli, Monthan, Karpooravalli and Ney Poovan at the month of February - April and Nendran and Robusta are grown well at the month of April - May

What are the suitable varieties grown well in Garden land?

The suitable varities grown well in Garden lands are Robusta, Nendran,D.Cavendish at the month of january to febraury and November to December

What are the suitable varieties grown well in Padugai lands?

All the varities are grown well at the month of Jan-Feb and Aug-Sep.

What are the suitable varieties grown well in Hills?

The suitable varities grown well in Hills are Namaran,Ladan,ManoranjithamSirumalai,Virupakshi at the month of April-May and June-Aug

Which season is suitable for banana planting?

Wet lands: Feb – April : Poovan, Rasthali, Monthan, Karpooravalli and Neypoovan. April – May : Nendran and Robusta Garden lands: January – February and November – December. Padugai lands: January – February and August – September. Hill Banana: April – May (lower Palani hills), June – August (Sirumalai)

How wind damage influence yield in banana plantation?

Wind exerts profound influence on growth and production of banana and it is considered as the greatest scourge in banana plantation. Wind velocity more than 50 km/hour causes serious damage to banana plantation. Pseudostems at preflower initiation stage are sometimes cut above ground level to avoid severe wind damage. A wind velocity of 18-30 km/h is sufficient to spilt the leaf lamina. Winds at 54-72 km/h can upturn and blow down large plantation while winds at 90-100 km/h completely destroy banana plantations.

What is optimum temperature required for banana cultivation?

Banana is a humid tropical plant, coming up well in a temperature range of 10C- 40C with an average of 23°C.

What are the reasons for smaller bunches in banana?

In cooler climate, the duration is extended, sucker production is affected and bunches become smaller. Low temperature i.e. less than 10C are unsuitable since they lead to a condition called choke or impeded inflorescence and bunch development. "

What is the effect of low temperature during bunch forming in banana?

If bunch emergence coincides with low temperature, it results in inflorescence emerging through pseudostem. Chilling temperature results in malformed bunches.

What is the effect of high temperature in banana?

High temperature leads to loss in growth.

Name the varieties which is tolerate to low temperature?

Tall varieties, in general, are more tolerant to cold temperature above freezing point. The variety 'Monthan' Dwarf Cavendish or ' khasadia' can tolerate low temperature.


What kind of soil is suitable for banana cultivation?

  • Loamy textured soil with atleast 2m. depth and proper drainage facilities is suitable for banana cultivation .

  • The slope of the land should be leass than 1% there should not be subsurface hard pans and calcarious layer. the gravel content of the soil should not exceed 5%.

Name the varieties suitable for ratooning of banana?


What are the varieties which resistant drought in banana?

Monthan, Karpuravalli

Name the varieties suitable for perennial banana cultivation?

Virupakashi and Sirumalai are the two main types. These are perennial bananas of high quality.

Name the hybrid banana released from Tamil Nadu?

CO1 banana is a hybrid developed at TNAU, Coimbatore. it takes about 14 month duration. The average bunch weight is 10 kg.

Name the varieties tolerant to sigatoka leaf spot?

Ney Poovan, Pachanadan, Karpuravalli, Fhia 1 (Gold finger), Sannachenkadali

Name the varieties tolerant to panama wilt disease?

Dwarf Cavendish, Robusta, Fhia 1 (Gold finger), Anai komban, Nivedya Kadali.

Name the varieties tolerant to bunchy top disease?

Poovan, Pachanadan

What are the high yielding varieties of banana?

Dwarf Cavendish, Robusta

What are the special features of Naattu Vazhai?

Unripe fruits are used for culinary purpose, ripe fruits are used for dessert purpose.

What are the promising hybrids in banana?

H1, H2, Co1, Fhia 1 (Gold finger), Fhia 3

Name the varieties of banana suitable for Tamil Nadu?

Nendran, Monthan, Poovan, Matti, Namarai

What are the special features of hill banana?

The hill banana is a speciality of Tamil Nadu much esteemed for its good flavor and keeping quality. These are perennial bananas of high quality. There are mainly two types, Sirumali and Virupakshi. Srumalai fruits are tastier than virupakshi. If cultivated in plains, hill bananas will lose their fruit quality.

What are the characteristics features of Nendran variety?

The fruits of this variety are eaten raw and also used for preparing various dishes especially chips. Each bunch of fruit has minimum of 5 clusters (hands) weighing about 12-25 kg. The harvest of this variety is connected to Onam (a harvest festival in the month of August or September). The fruits are also best for the preparation of Banana Chips.

Cultivation Practices

Are tissue culture plants better than suckers?

Yes, tissue culture plants are high yielding and healthy as they are multiplied from high yielding mother plants free from viruses. The plants are also free from soil borne pest and diseases like wilt, Erwinia rot and nematodes at the time of planting.

Can we go for ratooning of tissue culture plants?

Yes, tissue culture plants can be ratooned for 2 crops economically

Are suckers from tissue culture plants as good as original tissue culture plants?

Yes, they are as good as original tissue culture plants in respect of high yielding ability. But they are not free from viruses and soil borne diseases and pests.

Can we get tissue culture plants for planting one acre or more from NRCB?

  • No, at NRCB commercial multiplication is not being done.

  • We supply only samples to interested growers at free of cost and mother cultures to institutions at nominal rates depending upon the availability and demand.

What is the reason for non flowering of the tissue culture plants, sometimes?

  • The tissue culture plants may undergo mutation and result in off types, if sufficient care is not taken in the multiplication stage.

  • The permissible limit for off types as per the DBT guidelines is 1%. So quality of planting materials should be important before planting and it should be from reputed companies.

Are there any new planting methods?

  • Yes, there are two high density planting methods.

  • One is planting three suckers per hill at a spacing of 1.8x3.6m (4500 plant/ha.) for Robusta and Nendran varieties planting at 2x4m for tall varieties like Poovan, Rasthali, Ney Poovan, etc. (3750 plant/ha

  • Another method is called Paired row system, planting at a spacing of 1.2 X1.2X2 m with a population of 5200 plants/ha.

What is the advantage of new high density planting method?

The advantage is 50-100% increase in population per unit area, 25-30% reduction in fertilizer and water consumption, 30-40 percent reduction in cost of cultivation and 30-40% increase in profit per unit area.

What is Earthing up in banana?

Earthing up should be done during the rainy season to provide drainage, and to avoid water logging at the base. During summer and winter, the plants should be in furrow and on ridges during rainy season.

What is Gapfilling? what is the correct time?

  • Generally the banana suckers strikes roots within 10-15 days after planting, even after 15 days if there are no roots to the planted suckers it means it has died.

  • Inspite of all precautions taken, some suckers may fail to sprout. This may be due to defective planting or defective plant material or defective irrigation. So, one should go around after 15 days in banana gardens and search for the causalities.

  • All such causalities should immediately be gap filled with fresh sword suckers. Maintaining optimum population for unit area always leads to higher yields.

  • So all gaps in the banana plantation must be filled with fresh suckers within 20 days. This will also ensure fair uniformity in the stand of the crop.

What are the stages involved in Tissue culture banana?

  1. Initiation Stage.

  2. Multiplication Stage.

  3. Shooting and Rooting Stage.

  4. Hardening Stage.

What happen in the initiation stage of banana in Tissue culture?

  • The innermost tissue of surface sterilized plant in dissected aseptically and put an to the medium of growth, Medium contains major and miner elements, same vitamins.

  • Amino acids and growth promoting hormones, solidified by agar.

What happen in the multiplication stage of banana in Tissue culture?

  • When the tissue starts growth in stage I and forms a shoot it is transferred to another medium containing growth promoting hormones (enhancing cell division).

  • The growing shoot multiplies and forms a dump of 3-4 shoots. Those are transferred to another medium for shooting and rooting after optimum growth.

What happen in the Shooting and Rooting Stage of banana in Tissue culture?

  • After multiplication, the single shoots are separated and placed into a shooting are rooting medium. At this stage the hormones may or may not be required.

  • The shoot elongates and new root came up. Rooting takes place within 3-4 weeks.

What happen in the Hardening Stage of banana in Tissue culture

  • It involves acclimatization of bottle grown plants to the natural environment in Green House.

  • The plants are taken out of the bottle and the media adhering to the root system in washed fully.

  • After wards the plants are graded as per their size and then transferred singly to wells of portrays containing sterile medium (a mixture of peat moss and perlite).

  • The whole portray with plants is maintained under high humidity conditions for a couple of weeks and there after the portrays are kept in open in the Green House under controlled temperature and humidity.

  • This hardening taken 6 weeks and is called primary hardening - Regular sprays of plant protection chemicals are sprayed to achieve good hygienic condition of the plants.

What is meant by Banana intercropping?

  • Intercropping in banana gardens with annual crops can be remunerative. Farmers with limited resources have traditionally multicropped their lands to minimize risks associated with growing a single crop and to ensure more stable subsistence in terms of food nutrition and possible income.

  • Bananas are mostly grown by small and marginal farmers. With holdings less than a hectare, they can hardly be expected to raise a pure crop of banana.

  • Intercrops can easily be raised in banana plantation at the early stages of growth. Radish, cauliflower, cabbage, spinach, chilli, brinjal, colocassia, yam, dioscorea, lady's finger, basella, cucurbitaceous vegetables, marigold, tuberose are grown as Intercrops.

  • Mixed cropping with arecanut and coconut is a common practice in south India. Banana is grown as a nurse crop to provide shade for young plants of on orchard.

  • Cassava/plantain combination is one of the most efficient cropping systems. The total returns was highest in banana intercropped with bhendi followed by cluster bean lablab and the least in pure crop of banana.

What is meant by Banana Ripening?

  • Bananas are not usually allowed to ripen on the tree as it takes long time. Moreover, the fruit-peel splits, fruit ripens unevenly and fails to develop good colour and aroma, hence the marketable quality deteriorates. Therefore, banana needs to be ripened artificially.

  • In tropical conditions, fruits for local consumption are harvested and ripened by hanging the bunches in a shady place.

  • Some considered four enzymes as catalysts, which increased with ripening particularly at temperature below 300 C.

  • The predominant carbohydrate of green banana was found to be starch which hydrolysed to sucrose, glucose and fructose on ripening.

  • Smoke treatment causes ripening of the bunches within 3 days. Ripening is also done by keeping the bunches covered with gunny sacks.

  • Ethrel, ethylene and temperature promoted respiration can cause ripening of the fruits .

  • Ethylene at a concentration of 1 part per thousand also helps to initiate ripening of banana.

  • In commercial trade, ripening is initiated by using various chemical substances. Growth regulating chemicals, such as 2, 4-D, 2, 4, 5-T, IAA and TBZ have been tried to hasten ripening.

  • 2, 4-D is the cheapest chemical for inducing artificial ripening, and 1000 ppm of 2, 4-D for 30 seconds was optimum.

What is the application of Micronutrient of Zinc in Banana?

  • Zinc deficiency is found in banana when it grows in zinc deficient soils. Narrow pointed and chlorite young leaves,Bunch top crowns are the symptoms of zinc deficiency.

  • Application of 50 g/plant zinc sulphate at the time of planting is recommended or foliar application of zinc sulphate at 3 g/litre + urea (5g per litre) + 10 ml non ionic sticker in 20 litres of water. The above prepared solution is sprayed at 45 and 60 days after planting.

  • For ratoon crop 45 days after cutting the mother plant.

What is the application of Micronutrient of Boron in Banana?

  • Deficiency of boron may results in reduction in weight and size of the bunch and it will effects the proper filling of the bunch.

  • For boron deficiency apply 20 g borax per litter at the time of planting of spray boric acid at 0.2 % in 4th of 5th month after planting.

What is the application of Micronutrient of Iron in Banana?

  • Iron deficiency has been recorded in alkaline soils and is identified by interveinal chlorosis of young leaves.

  • Application of iron sulphate will correct the iron deficiency

What is the application of Micronutrient of Magnesium in Banana?

  • Magnesium deficiency symptoms show green banding around the margin and next to the midrib.

  • Spraying magnesium sulphate 2 g/l of water effectively corrects the deficiency.

What weed control practices are to be followed for rainfed Banana

  • In line sown crop 2-3 inter-cultivations are necessary.

  • In assured rainfall and irrigated areas spraying 2,4-D sodium salt @0.75 kg.a.i./ha as post-emergent spray around 20 to 25 days after sowing effectively controls weeds.

  • Isoproturon @ 0.5 a.i. /ha as pre-emergence spray is also effective in control of weeds.

  • In broadcast crop two effective hand weedings will minimize weeds as inter cultivations is not possible.

What are the crops that can be rotated with Banana?

  • Legumes like green gram / black gram / field gram / soybean / horse gram or ground nut in southern state will minimize inorganic fertilizer application and also sustain higher yields.

  • Banana – Maize (2 year crop rotation) gave higher yield per unit area as compared to Banana – Banana crop rotation.

What are the crops that can be intercropped with Banana?

  • Intercrops includes field bean (Lablab purpureus), pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), cowpea (Vigna sinensis), and niger (Guizotia abysinnica), castor bean, niger, groundnut and pulses. With groundnuts, Banana is the subsidiary crop. In hills it is grown mixed with soybean.

  • Sometimes the Banana intercropped with mustard, because mustard flowers bloom during the early stages of the Banana crop and attracts lady bird beetles, a predator of aphids, attacking the Banana crop. In case of rain failure, mustard acts as an insurance crop.

Irrigation Management

What is fertigation?

  • Providing required quantity of fertilizers mainly N and K either daily or weekly in small quantities through drip irrigation system is called fertigation.

  • The high density planting coupled with drip irrigation/ fertigation would greatly reduce cost of cultivation and enhance productivity.

What is surface drip irrigation?

The application of water to the soil surface as drops or a tiny stream through emitters placed at predetermined distance along the drip lateral is termed as surface drip irrigation. It can be of two types - online or integral type surface drip system. Integral dripline is recommended for sugarcane.

What is the frequency of fertigation?

  • Banana plants require 16-20 lit. of water.

  • The water soluble / conventional fertilizers are dissolved and applied through drip daily or at weekly intervals, so that the absorption and utilization are maximum.

  • More number of split application of fertilizers at proper stage along with micronutrients is possible in fertigation.

What is meant by Irrigation Schedule?

  • Irrigate the plants immediately after planting. After that irrigate at weekly intervels for about 35-40 times.

  • Rainfall requiement for banana growing areas should be 1500-2000 mm. In summer irrigate for every 5-10 days depending up on the type of soil.

  • Irrigation through drip system will induce early bunch formation and arround 40-45% water can be saved. Drip system has to be operated daily for 2-3 1/2 hours.

  • Delay in irrigation for banana results in delay in bunch formation, delay in maturity of bunch and quality also will be effected.

Define the advantages of drip irrigation?

  • High water use efficiency (~95%, compared to less than 50% in surface).

  • Flexibility of wetted area.

  • Versatile selection of emitters: type, discharge rate, position.

  • Economy in weed control

  • Low interference with cultivation.

  • Day and night irrigation.

  • Prevention of leaf wetting.

  • Water Saving 30 - 70%.

  • Energy & Labor saving up to 50% , about 1200-1500 kwh/ha electricityImproves fertilizer use efficiency up to 95%.

  • Enhanced plant growth & yield up to 30 - 50%Salinity control.

  • Irrigation at variable topographic conditions.

What is meant by Drip Irrigation System?

Application of water in the form of discrete droplets directly to the root zone of the crop through a network of pipeline

Why we use Drip Irrigation System?

  • Alleviate water stress during critical periods of vine growth and fruit development • Maintain consistent yields.

  • Maintain fruit quality.

  • Facilitate fertility management.

  • Prevent significant winter injury.

  • Micro-irrigation will enhance production per unit inputs applied.

What are the two methods following in the case of drip irrigation?

Two methods are,

  1. Single Line System

  2. Double Line System

What is meant by single Line System ?

The spacing between the plants is 1.5 X 1.5 m. One lateral line and one dripper per plant are used.

What is meant by Double Line System ?

The distance between the lines is 1 m., between two plants is 1.5 m. and between two double lines is 1.8m. each. One lateral and one dripper for two plants are arranged. The distance between the two lines may also be 2.1 X 2.4 m.

What is the average water requirement for banana?

The total water requirement varied from 1841 mm to 2150 mm for the various conditions. The per day consumption of water varied from 4.81 to 6.11 mm.

Irrigation schedule for banana?

Irrigate immediately after planting; give life irrigation after 4 days; subsequent irrigations are to be given once in a week for irrigated plantations of garden lands and once in 10 – 15 days for wetlands. Irrigate the fields copiously after every manuring. Use drip irrigation @ 15 litres/ plant/day from planting to 4th month, 20 litres/plant/day from 5th to shooting and 25 litres /plant/ day from shooting till 15 days prior to harvest.

How to increase water use efficiency in banana cultivation?

Water use efficiency is greater with drip irrigation compared to basin system of irrigation, and the system i.e. drip irrigation saves up to 50% in water use. The yield of drip irrigated crop is also higher. Mulching also increases the water use efficiency.

Name the advantages of drip irrigation in banana?

Drip irrigation can reduce quantity of water and increases yield and decreases number of days to harvest and increases leaf production.

What is the water requirement for rainfed banana cultivation?

For rainfed production, average rainfall of 2000 to 2500 mm per year, well-distributed, is desirable, but banana often grows under less rainfall.

How to conserve soil moisture in banana plantation?

Mulching using sugarcane trash 5-6 tonnes/ha has been recommended for better production. Polythene mulch was also found beneficial for conserving moisture.

Which irrigation method is best for banana cultivation?

Drip irrigation is best compared to basin system of irrigation. Drip irrigation increases the water use efficiency by saving 50 % of water.

What are the critical growth stages of banana for irrigation?

Vegetative and flowering/ shooting stage. Growth and initial reproductive phases are most critical to soil moisture

How inadequate irrigation affect banana yield?

Inadequate irrigation to banana leads to delayed flowering, bunch size and delayed maturity of reduced fingers and also poor keeping quality of fruits.

Nutrient Management

Is there any difference in fertilizer dosage for tissue culture plants?

  • Due to its vigorous growth and more number of roots, the tissue culture plants require 50% more fertilizers than the conventional plants.

  • The fertilizers should be applied in 5-7 splits at 30 to 45 days interval as against 3 splits in conventional planting method.

What is the NPK requirement of banana?

  • Banana plant requires 200 g of nitrogen (N), 30-50 g of phosphorus (P) and 300-450 g of potassium (K) applied in 3-5 split doses.

What are the suitable fertilizers for banana?

Urea, ammonium sulphate, super phosphate, diammonium phosphate, potassium chloride (muriate of potash) and potassium sulphate (sulphate of potash).

What is the requirement of micro nutrients in banana?

The banana plants commonly exhibit micro nutrient deficiency symptoms for zinc and boran. To correct these deficiencies soil application of 25 g zinc sulphate/plant and 5 g of borax is recommended. Foliar spraying of 0.5% zinc sulphate and 0.05% boran is recommended between 3-5th month after planting.

Any banana micronutrient mixture is available at NRCB?

Yes. 'Banana Shakti', a micronutrient mixture is available at NRCB for sale (Rs.100/kg).

What are the content of Banana Shakti?

Banana Shakti contains all the essential micronutrients like iron, copper, zing, manganese and boron in optimum concentrations and in proper proportions.

How much quantity of Banana Shakti should be applied per plant?

Banana Shakti mixture should be applied at the rate of 10 g/plant. It indirectly increases the macronutrient use efficiency.

Whether application of Banana Shakti mixture increases the yield?

Yes, it increases the yield by 10-15% with an additional profit of Rs.10000 to Rs.15000 per hectare.

Whether Banana Shakti mixture can be applied as a foliar spray

Yes, the mixture is suitable for both soil and foliar application. Two percent foliar spray of this mixture in high pH soil avoids fixation of micronutrients in the soil.

Whether micronutrient deficiency occurs in banana growing soils?

Yes, Micronutrient deficiency generally occurs in sandy soils, which lacks micronutrient elements. High pH clay soils rich in micronutrients, have less micronutrient supplying power. In such types of soils, micronutrient deficiency is very common.

How to rectify the micronutrient deficiency?

In general, soil application of micronutrient is recommended, where the soil pH is less than 8.5 and foliar spraying of micronutrients is recommended where the soil pH is more than 8.5. • In case of soil application, 10 g of 'Banana Shakti' (micronutrient mixture developed at NRCB) per plant at 4th month after planting (MAP) is recommended. • In case of foliar spray, 2% Banana Shakti solution along with suitable adjuvant (sticking agent) at 4 MAP, 5 MAP and 6 MAP to correct the symptoms and increases the growth and yield.

How to grow banana in alkali or sodic soils?

In alkali or sodic soil, apply more quantity of organic manures (15 to 20 kg/plant). • Generally, banana roots have the capacity to eliminate or avoid sodium ion entry into the plant system from soil. This capacity could be enhanced by the presence of sufficient potassium ions in the soil. So, application of 20 to 30 per cent more potassic fertilizers is recommended.

How to manage sodicity and alkalinity problem in banana cultivation?

Before planting of banana, first apply 5 to 7 tonnes of gypsum (calcium sulphate) per hectare, incorporate thoroughly in to the soil by proper ploughing, then stagnate water in the field and after one week, drain it and improve the drainage facilities. • Apply 2 kg of gypsum per plant in the 60th day after planting, drain it with affluent water before application of fertilizers. • The soil K:Na ratio should be maintained as 2½ : 1 at any time during banana growth period.

How to avoid marginal scorching of banana leaves in saline and sodic soils?

Marginal scorching of banana leaves is observed in high pH soils and is due to accumulation of sodium ions in the leaves which lead to marginal chlorosis and subsequent necrosis. • To rectify this problem, application of 2 kg of gypsum/plant along with good irrigation. • Increase the quantity of potassium application in the fertilizer schedule by 20 percent. Give foliar spray of 2% potassium sulphate solution along with sticking agent.

How to manage acid soils in banana cultivation?

  • In banana cultivation under acid soils, apply 100 g CaCO3 (Calcite) or 100 g Dolomite (calcium-magnesium carbonate) per plant and avoid acid forming fertilizers like ammonium chloride, ammonium sulphate etc.

  • Prefer single super phosphate and rock phosphate as phosphatic sources.

  • Apply silicon rich, easily available materials like fly ash or rich husk ash or composted sugarcane trashes or paddy straw at the rate of 10 kg per plant, for better release of phosphate ions for banana growth.

Is there any need of application of biofertilizers for rectifying the acidic soils?

  • Yes, application of 25g of vesicular arbuscular micorhiza (VAM) and 25g of phosphobacteria per plant to increase the availability of insoluble phosphorus to plants in such soil conditions.

  • The recommended dose of potassic fertilizers like KCl or K2SO4 should be applied in splits, in small quantities at a time.

  • The optimum soil Ca:Mg:K ratio for banana cultivation is 10:5:1. This ratio should be maintained through regular soil testing.

Is it possible to grow banana organically?

  • A technology for growing banana organically by using organic fertilizers, bio pesticides and fungicides has been developed at this Centre.

  • For organic bananas, there is a great demand for export and in domestic market.

  • Successful organic farming is possible if the soil is highly fertile and rich in organic matter.

Application of vermicompost in banana – economical or not?

Application of vermicompost to banana is recommended and good for improving soil health. The farmers can produce the required vermicompost from their farm waste, it is more economical.

What are the suitable organic manures for banana?

Farm yard manure, vermicompost, poultry manure, pig manure, press mud, composted coir pith, goat manure, bone meal, blood meal, horn and hoof meal etc. are suitable organic manures for banana.

What is the recommendation of fertilizer for banana in Karnataka?

State Spacing (m) N(g) P2o6(g) K2O(g) FYM (kg/pl) Karnataka(DC) 1.8x1.8 540 325 675 40t/ha (Robusta) 2.2x2.2 405 245 507 40 t/ha Others 2x2 400 240 500 40 t/ha

What is the biofertilizer recommendation for the rain fed Banana?

Treating seeds with Azospirillum brasilense (N fixing bacterium) and Aspergillus awamori (P solubilizing fungus) @ 25 g/kg seed is beneficial

How to apply the chemicals and biofertilizers to the seeds of rain fed Banana?

In case seeds are to be treated with seed dressing chemicals, treat the seeds first with dressing chemicals and then with bio-fertilizers at the time of sowing.

What is the procedure for applying the biofertilizers to rain fed Banana seeds?

  • Step 1: Bio-fertilizer culture specific to the crop is to be used @ 25g /kg of seed.

  • Step 2: Sticker solution is necessary for effective seed inoculation. This can be prepared by dissolving 25g jaggery or sugar in 250 ml water and boiling for 5 minutes. The solution thus prepared is cooled.

  • Step 3: Smear the seeds well using the required quantity of sticker solution. Then add culture to the seeds and mix thoroughly so as to get a fine coating of culture on the seed.

  • Step 4: The culture-coated seeds is to be dried well in shade to avoid clumping of seeds.

  • Step 5: Use the inoculated seeds for sowing.

How much is the Phosphorus content in Banana fruit?

283 mg per 100 g.

How much is the protein content in Banana fruit?

7.3 g per 100 g.

How much is the Carbohydrate content in Banana fruit?

* 72 g per 100 g.

How much is the Fat content in Banana fruit?

1.3 g per 100 g.

How much is the Crude fibre content in Banana fruit?

3.6 g per 100 g.

How much is the Mineral matter content in Banana fruit?

2.7 g per 100 g.

How much is the Calcium content in Banana fruit?

344 mg per 100 g-maximum among cereals.

How much is the True Digestibility (TD) of Banana fruit?


How much is the Biological Value (BV) of Banana fruit?


How much is the Net Protein Utilization (NPU) of Banana fruit?


Pest And Disease

Is there any serious pest in banana?

  • Pseudostem stem borer is becoming a serious pest affecting varieties like Nendran, Karpuravalli, Robusta and Rasthali.

  • The incidence is observed after 5th month.

  • This pest can be monitored and controlled by keeping the longitudinal split of Pseudostem of 90 cm length or disc on stump trap @100 per ha.

How to identify banana stem weevil damage initially?

Jelly exudation on the stem is the initial symptom of the stem weevil damage.

Is there any chemical control for banana stem weevil?

  • Chlorpyripos 2.5ml/l with adjuvant 1ml/l swabbing on the stem prevents infestation of banana stem weevil.

  • Once jelly exudation is noticed

  • Two injections per plant at 2 and 4 feet above the ground level till flowering.

  • The injection needle should enter only two or three leaf sheaths and should not touch the central core.

Where the biocontrol agents for insect control is available?

The, National Research Centre for Banana (NRCB), Trichy is selling the mother inoculums of biocontrol agents for farmers which can be mass multiplied under farm house conditions by the farmers themselves.

How to prepare banana stem trap for weevil control?

Cut the stem into 90 cm length bits and split the same into two halves. Each piece will be used as a trap. These traps are to be placed @100/ha near the base of banana plants. The trapped weevils have to be collected manually and killed.

Is there any biocontrol method available for stem weevil control?

Yes, entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana and Heterorhabditis indica can be swabbed on the stem trap and kept in the garden. The weevils attracted to the traps will get infected and killed. This will avoid manual collection and killing of weevils.

How to prepare banana stem trap with biocontrol agents?

The longitudinal split traps can be swabbed on the cut surface with entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana @ 25g containing 1X109 CFU/gm or the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis indica @25ml/trap containing 1x108 IJs/ml. Keep the traps near the base of the plants.

Where to get stem injector?

Banana stem injector can be purchased from Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore or Secretary, Vanoli Uzhavar Sevai Maiyam, Chatram Bus Stand, Trichy 620 002.

What are the control measures for banana leaf eating caterpillar?

  • Spray Bacillus thuringiensis (2 gm/l with 1 ml adjuvant/l).

  • Pheromone traps were also available which can be tied @ 10/ha at about 3 feet above ground level.

  • Chemical control measure is spraying of chlorpyrifos @ 2.5 ml/l with adjuvant.

What are the insects which cause problem during dry or drought weather conditions?

  • Thrips (Helionothrips kadaliphilus) and foliar mite (Tetranychus sp.) and Eutetranychus orientalis infestation is more during dry weather.

  • It can be controlled with spray of Dimethoate 1.5 ml/l with 1 ml adjuvant/l.

What are the reasons for the banana plants being toppled down?

  • The sudden toppling down of banana plants is due to heavy incidence of nematodes, resulting in poor anchorage.

  • There are five major nematodes infesting banana and causing economical damage to the plants.

  • This can be controlled by application of carbofuran 40g at time of planting and at 5th month after planting.

What is Nematode? How do I see Nematodes?

  • Nematodes are worms like structure feeding on the roots and damaging the plants.

  • Nematodes cannot be seen through naked eye. It can be seen only through microscopes.

How can such tiny organisms do serious damage?

Nematodes attack the roots by piercing the tissues with their spear-like stylet and feeding on the cell contents. More damage occurs after nematodes invasion due to the infection by other organisms present in the soil, such as fungi and bacteria and

What are the important nematode problems in banana? How much damage is caused by nematodes on banana?

The most damaging and widespread nematodes attacking banana are : 1) The burrowing nematode. 2) Radopholus similis. 3) Root-lesion nematode. 4) Pratylenchus coffeae. 5) spiral nematode. 6) Helicotylenchus multicinctus. 7) Root-knot nematode. 8) Meloidogyne incognita. 9) cyst nematode. 10) Heterodera oryzicola. Nematodes form a major pest on banana and crop losses caused by nematodes is estimated about 20%.

How to know, the banana plants are affected by nematodes?

  • Nematode infested banana plants have poor growth with lanky pseudostems, foliar necrosis and produce very small bunches. However symptoms on roots and corms are more specific.

  • Lesion-nematode produces small cuticular sunken lesions on the creamy white to light orange coloured portion of the main tender roots of banana. Whereas, on older roots surface cracks appear. This shows extensive reddish-brown lesions in cortex when cut longitudinally. These cause decay and death of distal cells.

  • In heavily nematode infested field, banana plants topple over easily during wet and windy weather because of inadequate anchorage.

Is there any nematode-fungal disease complex in banana?

Yes. Incidence and losses due to banana wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.cubense is enhanced in association with major nematode pathogens viz. Radopholus similis, Pratylenchus coffeae or Meloidogyne incognita. Infection of nematodes prior to fungus or in combination resulted in the early onset and increased severity of the Fusarium wilt symptoms incidence

Can a banana plant attacked by different nematodes be saved?

Yes. Lesion nematodes can be effectively managed by applying Carbofuran 50g/plant, one at the time of planting and two applications after planting at 3 months interval. Plant recovery and yield increase was observed in the plants applied with Carbofuran.

Is there any other non-chemical control method for nematodes?

  • Nowadays, non-chemical methods are receiving greater attention in view of the chemical residual toxicity and the pollution of soil and environment.

  • Marigold (Tagetes spp.) grown as an inter crop reduced the root lesion nematode population with 25 per cent yield increase.

  • Crop rotation with paddy, sugarcane, green gram, sunnhemp (Crotolaria juncea) followed by banana are recommended.

  • Cultivation of sunnhemp is generally recommended prior to planting in order to manage the nematode population.

How to get nematode free planting material?

Select the suckers from nematode free banana field. Otherwise, collect the planting material after paring immerse the suckers in hot water at 50-55°C for 20 minutes or dip the suckers in 0.1 percent solution for 30 minutes to get nematode free planting material.

Which is the best and cheapest control method for nematode?

Newer nematicides Rugby 10G applied at 5g per plant during 3 and 5th month reduced the nematode population and increased the yield. The cost is much cheaper. o Among different neem formulations, an Econeem formulation was found to be very effective in reducing the nematode populations and enhanced plant growth.

What are the biocontrol agents available to control nematode infesting banana?

Biocontrol agents like Paecilomyces lilacinus, Verticillium chlamydosporium, V.lecanii, Pasteuria penetrans, Bacillus subtilis and VAM Glomus mosseae were found very effective in reducing the nematode population and increase the plant growth.

How to identify and manage viral diseases?

Based on characteristic symptoms induced by individual virus, it can be identified. Virus indexing using diagnosis kit can be used to detect viruses.

Which varieties are susceptible to wilt pathogens?

Cultivars like Ney Poovan, Rasthali, Virupakshi, Sakkia, Monthan, Red Banana and Nadan are susceptible to wilt pathogens.

How to manage leaf spot diseases?

Spray 0.1% Propicanazole at 20 days interval. Remove old diseased, infected hanging leaves before spray. 3-4 sprays may be given. The same fungicides should not be repeated and different fungicides like Carbendazim (0.1%), Calixin (0.2%) Mancozeb or Copper oxychloride (0.25%) may be sprayed with any wetting agent (5ml/10 l water) on the underside of the leaf gives very good control of leaf spot diseases.

Pseudostem split symptom, is it caused by wilt pathogen?

Yes, the FOC can cause pseudostem split symptoms. Similar symptoms are also noticed with Erwinia rot disease.

How to manage wilt in banana?

Use pathogen free suckers, pairing and pralinage of suckers, application of Furadon and dipping in 1% Bavistin is necessary before planting. Use tissue culture plants. Drenching and injection with 2% Bavistin (3ml/plant) can minimize the spread.

Post Harvest Technology

What is the apt time for harvesting rain fed Banana?

Banana matures 3 to 5 months after sowing, depending on variety, season and soil properties. When the earhead on the main shoot and 50% of the earheads on the crop turn brown, the crop is ready for the harvest.

What are the harvesting practices to be followed for rain fed Banana?

Rainfed crops are cut close to ground, stalks are allowed to wither for a day or two in field, and then bundled and stacked for about 2 months before threshing. To separate the fruits, dried ear heads are beaten with sticks; sheaves are trodden by bullocks or crushed by stone rollers. Separate fruits are winnowed and cleaned.

What are the harvesting practices for Banana under irrigated conditions?

  • Banana under irrigated condition is harvested about 3.5 months after transplanting.

  • Ear heads are gathered when they ripen; 3 or 4 pickings are usually required to collect all ear heads from a field.

  • Heap the harvested ear heads and cover the heaps with Banana straw for 2 to 3 days as a time for drying before threshing.

  • Straw from irrigated plants is coarse and thick and is rarely cut. It is grazed down or sometimes turned under as manure for next crop.

What is the maturity index for harvesting Banana under irrigated conditions?

Under irrigated conditions, crop is harvested about 3.5 months after transplanting.

In case of rain fed Banana harvest the crop when the ears are yellowish brown.

What is the right time to harvest Banana?

  • The maturity indices are based on the age of the bunch, the interval between flowering and harvesting (IFH), the filling of the fingers or the colour of the skin and pulp.

  • The filling of the fingers is the criterion mostly used. Generally, bunches were ready for harvesting 100 -150 days after flowering.

  • In case of Grand Naine (G9) variety, 1st harvest was done11 months after planting and 1st ratoon crop comes to harvest within 10 months and 2nd ratoon can be harvested 9 months after the second harvest. Hence from properly maintained Banana field, three harvests can be done within 30 months.

What are the best yield indicators of Banana c.v.robusta at 70 days after planting (DAP)?

Number of leaves and Plant girth (Co-efficient of determination (R2 ) 88 %) with optimum values as 8 leaves and 15.07 cm were the best indicators of crop yield.

What are the best yield indicators of Banana c.v.robusta at 126 days after planting?

Plant girth and Number of leaves (R2 89 %) with optimum values as 34.5 cm and 12 leaves were the best indicators of crop yield.

What are the best yield indicators of Banana c.v.robusta at 185 days after planting?

Plant height and Leaf length (R2 92%) with optimum values as 138.9 cm and 127.3 cm were the best indicators of crop yield.

What are the best yield indicators of Banana c.v.robusta at 250 days after planting?

Plant height and Plant girth (R2 90%) with optimum values as 159.21 cm and 67.8 cm were the best indicators of crop yield.

What are the best yield indicators of Banana c.v.robusta at 315 days after planting?

Leaf breadth & Leaf length (R2 81%) with optimum values as 67.2 cm and 164.1 cm were the best indicators of crop yield.

What are the best yield indicators of Banana c.v.robusta at 375 days after planting (Harvest)?

Number of fingers /bunch and Number of hands/ bunch (R2 99%) with optimum values as 26 fingers /hand and 13 hands/ bunch were the best indicators of crop yield.

How to store Banana fruits after harvesting practices?

In less humid places, use fresh gada cloth for short term storage. For long term storage, in humid places 700 gauge ploythene bag may be used and also Banana fruits are stored in metallic tins, earthen fruit bins, and gunny bags. Underground pits called hagevu in Karnataka, India were bottle shaped excavations used to store Banana. Banana seeds resist insect and fungal attacks, but it is preferable to dust the storage bags with lindane.

How to do milling in Banana?

Banana can be milled by wet conditioning. It can be steamed followed by milling in a hammer or plate mill or a roller flour mill.

What is Dehandling?

  • After harvest, dehandling should be carried out with a sharp, clean,Banana knife, making a smooth cut as close as possible to the stem.

  • After dehandling, the fruits are placed with the crown facing downwards onto a layer of leaves to allow for latex drainage.

  • In order to restrict crown disease development, the hands should be dipped in a solution of 0.1% Benlate or Thiabendazole.

What is Precooling?

  • The fruit destined for the distant and export market should be precooled considerably for extending the storage life.

  • Precooling of the produce should be done within 10 -12 hrs of bunch harvesting.

  • The fruit packed in boxes should be precooled by forced air cooling at 13 0 c and 85 - 90% RH. It may take 6 to 8 hrs to bring the fruit pulp temperature to 13° from field temperature of 30 to 35 0 c.

  • The boxes should be immediately moved to cold rooms for storage purpose.

What is Waxing?

  • Waxing is an important operation for extending the shelf life of the fruit.

  • The Banana hands have to be dipped in 6% wax emulsion for 30-60 seconds. This results in delayed ripening of fruit.

  • It also improves the flavour and taste.

  • A second dip of Banana hands in 12% wax emulsion extends the shelf life of fruits for more than 5 weeks.

What are the signs of maturity present in Banana?

  • The fruits are harvested when top leaves start drying.

  • The colour of the fruit changes from deep green to a lighter green.

  • Shedding of floral ends of fruits with slightest touch of the hand

  • The angles or ridges of the fruits become less prominent or they change from angular to round.

Banana Processing

Is Banana better than rice to serve as a diet for poor people?

The nutritive value of Banana is better than that of rice and other cereals. Banana is especially valuable as it contains the amino acid methionine, which is lacking in the diets of hundreds of millions of the poor who live on starchy staples such as cassava, plantain, polished rice, or maize meal.

What is the most effective method for extending the storage life of fruits?

Storing the fruits at optimum low temperature is the most effective method for long term storage of fruits and methods like waxing, packing in flexible films, use of ethylene absorbents could be used for short term storage of fruits at room temperature.

Is there any nutritive value in Banana husk just like wheat fruits?

The husk forms 5.6 per cent of the weight of the fruit. It is rich in calcium, phosphorus and iron, the calcium content is higher than in the common cereals and millets. The major proteins of Banana are prolamins and gluteins and they appear to be adequate in all the essential amino acids. Germinated finger millet is used to make weaning foods for infants.

Whether juice can be prepared from pulpy fruits like banana, sapota, jackfruits?

It is possible. But before making the product the extracted pulp has to be liquefied using suitable enzymes so that the pulp becomes thin and usable for juice.

What are the possible products out of Banana fruit as food?

The fruit is used in the preparation of food items such as Banana dosa, Banana balls, pancake, vermicelli, malt, biscuit, beer, papads, millet mix, bread, roti etc. The fruit is made into a fermented drink (or beer). It is also used for as a flavoured drink in festivals. Straw makes valuable fodder for both working and milking animals.

How far Banana is good in health and medicinal point of view?

  • Finger millet is a popular food among diabetic patients in the country. Its slow digestion indicates low blood sugar levels after a finger millet diet thereby reacting as a safer food for diabetics. The leaf juice has been given to women in childbirth.

  • Banana can prevent leprosy, liver disease, measles, pleurisy, pneumonia, and small pox in long term. Banana has the highest calcium content and good fiber content. This is a very good source of calcium for young growing children and aged people who need calcium supplement.

How to make Banana noodles?

  • Sieve 70 g of refined wheat flour (control) and 30 g of Banana flour blends in a BS 60 mesh sieve, steam for five minutes, cool and sieve again.

  • Fill the flour in the mixing compartment of the pasta-making machine and blend with water 30 ml and salt 2g for 30 minutes and extrude. Steam the noodles for 5 minutes. Allow to temper in room temperature for 8 hours. Dry in a cabinet drier at 60 for 6 hours.

How to make Banana vermicelli?

  • Banana vermicelli is similar to Banana noodles except for that the floor composition as follows

  • Refined wheat flour – 30 g

  • Whole wheat flour – 40g.

  • Mix them and fill it pasta making machine, extrude, steam and dry them.

How to make Banana idiyappam?

Banana idiyappam is similar to Banana noodles except for that the floor composition as follows * Rice flour – 80 g * Banana – 30g Mix them and fill it pasta making machine, extrude, steam and dry them.

What is Banana mudde? How to prepare it?

  • Banana mudde is a food item unique to the state of Karnataka, India. It is mainly popular with the rural folk of Karnataka.

  • Banana mudde is made of Banana flour by pouring the flour into boiling water with some amount of salt.

  • Mix it together to make soft dough. The dough is then made into tennis-ball sized balls (mudde) and served hot.

  • Banana mudde is usually eaten with ghee and sambar.

How to make Banana mudde along with rice?

Take 4 cups of water and a fistful of rice fruits in a saucepan, add salt and bring to a boil. Cover and cook the rice until the fruits are soft and then just pour or dump Banana flour into the pot. Don't stir now; this is the way folks back at home cook. Cover and put this mixture on medium heat for few minutes until the steam lifts the plate covering the pan. Using a wooden masher or whisk, stir the Banana-rice mixture vigorously with no lumps. Let the stove in simmer heat and do steam cooking for about 15 minutes. After cooking, let it cool down a bit and make mudda or balls out of with hands or ice cream scooper. Place the Banana mudda in a bowl and pour the sambhar over it. Not too cold and not too hot, just warm is perfect for the palate. Drizzle ghee over it

How to make Banana malt?

Take 1 tablespoon Banana flour in a cup. Add half glass water slowly. Combine to smooth, lump free paste. Do not add the flour directly to boiling water, it will clump into lumps. In a vessel, heat till the water or milk reaches boiling stage.Then add the dissolved Banana flour solution slowly to the boiling water (or milk), continuously stirring to prevent lumps. If you add the flour mix to water before the boiling stage, the flour will separate and it won't be suitable to drinking. Add sugar or jaggery and pinch of cardamom (Elachi) powder. Reduce the heat to medium level, and simmer the Banana malt for 5 minutes, stirring in-between. Turn off the heat. Let it cool to warm, and then pour into a glass or cup. This serves for two cups.

How to make Banana halwa?

Fry 100g Banana flour in 50g ghee in a heavy bottom kadai. Add coconut milk powder with the flour and cook the flour in water. When it thickens add 100g sugar. When the halwa forms a mass, add 50g ghee and stir. Stir continuously till the halwa leaves the sides of the pan and the ghee separates from halwa. Add the coarsely ground cashew nuts. Spread on a greased tray and cut into pieces.

How to make ready to use beverage mix?

Clean and soak Banana for 12 hrs. Allow it to germinate for 48hrs. Shade dry them for 24hrs and devegetate them followed by kilning at 700 – 750C. Grind it in a local floor mill. Perform sieving in a BS 80 mesh. To make it a malt floor add, milk powder, powdered sugar or jiggery and pack it with minimum moisture.

What are the common products that can be prepared from banana fruits?

The products that can be prepared from banana fruits are:

  1. BananaChips.

  2. Banana beverages.

  3. Clarified juices.

  4. Mixed fruit jam.

What is the normal shelf life of processed products?

  • Normally at ambient conditions of storage the processed products will have a minimum shelf life of 6 months.

  • Canned products will have one year shelf life at ambient conditions of storage itself.

  • The shelf life of others can be doubled by storing at refrigerated conditions.

What is the difference between jam and jelly?

ams are prepared using the fruit pulp, while jelly is prepared using fruit extract only and hence jelly will be somewhat transparent or translucent type.

How to prepare Banana Chips?

Typically, unripe peeled bananas are thinly sliced, immersed in a sodium or potassium metabisulphite solution, fried in hydrogenated oil at 180 to 200°C, and dusted with salt and an antioxidant. Alternatively, slices may be dried before frying and the antioxidant and salt added with the oil. Similar processes for producing plantain chips have been developed

How to prepare Banana Squash?

Pectinase was added to the banana pulp (1 gm / 1 mg) and soaked for 5 hours. 2 mg sugar was added to 1 kg of pulp per litre of water, 10 gm citric acid was added to the juice pulp and boiled. Then the mixture was strained. Some clarified juice, 7 mg potassium metabisulphite was added and bottled in a ratio of 1 part of squash with three parts of water.