Parts of the Banana


  • Cultivated bananas are parthenocarpic, which makes them sterile and unable to produce viable seeds.

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  • Fibrous adventitious root system

  • Root depth was strongly influenced by soil type and drainage

  • Positive correlation between bunch weight and quantity of roots producted.

  • Root system confined mostly to the upper 40 cm of soil because of unfavorable subsoil conditions produced less bunches.

  • No new root emissions after 75 to 90 days after planting or when 6-10 leaves had developed.

  • Root growth was best at day /night temperature of 25/18° C .

  • Extent of root growth radially and in depth was a good yield indicator.

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  • The real stem is underground called rhizome.

  • A single, lateral, vegetative bud which is positioned 180o C from the axil of the leaf is a generic feature

  • The apparent, unbranched, errect and areal pseudostem is formed by the long, stiff and sheathy leaf bases which are rolled around one another to form an aerial pseudostem.

  • Shaft - the central axis that is concealed at the bottom of the pseudostem.

  • At the time of flowering, the shaft elongates, pierces through the pseudostem and produces an inflorescence terminally.

  • Musa is monocorpic perennial, because it produces flowers and fruits once during its life time

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  • The leaves are spirally arranged and consist of asheath, a petiole and a blade.

  • The sheaths are nearly circular and tightly packed into non woody pseudostem which is functioning as the trunk of the plant. They are much longer than the blades.

  • The petiole is rounded beneath and channeled above       

  • In general, shape of the blade is blunt at the tip and  tapered, rounded or even auriculate at the base. It is thickest near the mid rid and thinnest at the margins. 

  • The veins of the lamina are parallel with each other. 

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  • The inflorescence is branched spadix.

  • The flowers are protected by large, brightly coloured, spirally arranged, boat shaped bracts called spathes.

  • When the flowers open, the spathes roll back and finally fall off.

  • The flowers are polygamous i.e. staminate flowers, pistillate flowers and bisexual flowers are present in the same plant.

  • The male flowers lie within the upper bracts, the female flowers within the lower bracts and the bisexual flowers within the middle bracts.

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  • Flowers are placed in the axils of the bracts, arranged biseriately and commonly number about to     12 to 20 per node. 

  • Basal flowers behave as pistillate flowers while the terminal ones as staminate. At the lower end, they form a bulbous male bud.        

  • The axis beyond the female phase is generally bare, but in some cultivars flowers and bracts are  retained. 

  • The intermediate flower clusters are of transitional stage structure and are fuctionally male. Individual flowers are ebracteolate.

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  • Tepals 6 arranged in two whorls of 3 each, free or united.

  • In Musa, the three tepals of the outer whorl and the two lateral tepals of the inner whorl are fused by valvate aestivation to form 5 toothed tube like structure.

  • The inner posterior tepal is alone free.

  • It is distinctly broad and membranous.

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  • Basically stamens 6, in two whorls of 3 each, arranged opposite to the tepals.

  • Only 5 stamens are fertile and the inner posterior stamen is either absent or represented by a staminode.

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  • Ovary inferior, tricarpellary, syncarpous, trilocular, numerous ovules on axile placentation.

  • The style is simple and filiform. The stigma is three lobed.

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  • In edible bananas, the fruit develops by vegetative parthenocarpy i.e. the ovary develops into a mass of  edible pulp without the fertilization and even without   the stimulus of pollination. So the fruits are seedless.

  • In the bunch, each cluster is called hand and the individual fruit is called a finger.

  • Fruit is a berry and has a leathery epicarp, slightly  fibrous mesocarp, and fleshy endocarp.

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