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Diseases :: Deficiency Diseases
DEFICIENCY DISEASE OF VITAMINS

 

1. VITAMIN A

2. VITAMIN D

3. VITAMIN E

4. VITAMIN K

5. VITAMIN C

6. VITAMIN B1

7. VITAMIN B2

8. VITAMIN B3

9. VITAMIN B6

10. PANTOTHENIC ACID

11. FOLIC ACID

12. VITAMIN B12

 

 

1. VITAMIN A: (RETINOL)

The important deficiency states due to lack of vitamin A in the diet are:

i. Night Blindness: In the early stages of vitamin A deficiency, the individual cannot see well in dim light. In advanced deficiency, the subject cannot see objects in dim light.

ii. Xerosis Conjunctiva: The conjunctiva is dry, thickened, wrinkled and pigmented. The pigmentation gives conjunctiva a smoky appearance.

iii. Xerosis Cornea: When dryness spreads to cornea, it takes on a hazy, lusterless appearance.

iv. Bitot’s Spots: Greyish glistening white plaques, formed of desquamated thickened conjuctival epithelium, usually triangular in shape and firmly adhering to the conjuctiva.

v. Keratomalacia: When xerosis of the conjuctiva and cornea is not treated, it may develop into a condition known as keratomalacia.

vi. Follicullar Hyperkeratosis: The skin becomes rough and dry.


Under the national prophylaxis programme against nutritional blindness 2,00,000 IU of vitamin A in oil is administered every six months to preschool children to eliminate vitamin A deficiency.

SOURCES

Vitamin A content of foods

This is followed by another dose of 2,00,000 IU one to four weeks later. In the case of infants and children weighing less than 8 kg, the schedule may be followed using half the dose of vitamin A. Acute corneal lesions should be considered as medical emergency and should be referred to the nearest hospital for treatment of the general condition in addition to the treatment of the eye disease. 

2. VITAMIN D (7 - DEHYDRO CHOLESTROL)

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ii. OSTEOMALACIA

 

 

 

Source : (Modified) Passmore, R and M.A. Eastwood, 1990, Davidson and Passmore, Human nutrition and Dietetics, Modified ELBS, Churchill Livingstone.

In prescribing medicinal vitamin D under certain situations where there is minimal exposure to sunlight, a specific recommendation of a daily supplement of 400 mg is made by ICMR.

SOURCES

Vitamin D content of foods

Source: Guthrie Helen, A. and Mary Frances Picciano, 1999, Human Nutrition, WCB McGraw Hill, Boston.

3. VITAMIN E (TOCOPHEROL)

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SOURCES

Vegetable oils, nuts and whole grams are the richest natural sources of vitamin E (wheat germ oil contains 120 mg/100 g oil) Rice bran oil contains a high amount of unsaponifiable compounds such as tocotrienols and oryzanol which have antioxidant activity. It is present in small quantities in lettuce, grasses and embryos of many seeds. In general plant foods are richer sources of vitamin E than animal foods.

Sources : Gupta Soame and B.D. Punekar, 1978. Studies on vitamin E content of commonly consumed food stuffs and influence of heating vegetable oils. S.N.D.T. University, Bombay.

4. VITAMIN K

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SOURCES

5. VITAMIN C (ASCORBIC ACID)

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Severe Vitamin C deficiency results in the development of the disease scurvy. The disease is characterized by


In infantile scurvy, the infant screams if picked up or moved or handled. There is pain and tenderness of the limbs.

6. VITAMIN B1 (THIAMINE)

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7. VITAMIN B2 OR RIBOFLAVIN

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a) ANGULAR STOMATITIS

The lesions at the angles of the mouth are termed as angular stomatitis.

 

8. VITAMIN B3 (NIACIN)

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Niacin deficiency causes the disease pellagra in humans. Pellagra is also called Disease of 3D’s. Because the disease has the symptoms of diarrhoea, dermatitis and depression. The disease is characterized by the following. 

b) GLOSSITIS

9. VITAMIN B6 OR PYRIDOXINE

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Pyridoxine deficiency results in the following

10. PANTOTHENIC ACID

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11. FOLIC ACID

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12. VITAMIN B12

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Source

http://www.textbooksonline.tn.nic.in/Books/12/HomeSci-EM/Chapter-3.pdf

http://images.google.co.in/imgres?imgurl=http://www.cehjournal.org/images/ceh_14_40_072_f01.jpg

http://www.bhj.org/journal/2002_4401_jan/images/fig1_114.jpg

http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal/120-1262/2729/content00.jpg

http://www.academic.marist.edu/~jzmz/topics/nrbc/nrbc18.jpg

http://www.rzuser.uni-heidelberg.de/~cn6/baltista/cheilitis.jpeg

http://lh5.ggpht.com/pellagra.jpg

 

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