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Diseases :: Common Diseases
DIABETES

2. SYMPTOMS OF DIABETES

3. DIAGNOSIS


1. TYPES OF DIABETES

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1. Increased thirst.
2. Increased hunger.
3. Excessive urination.
4. Weight loss.               
5. Weakness and tiredness.
6. Delayed wound healing.
7. Numbness in hands and feet.
8. Blurred vision.
9. Itching in genitals.  


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Diabetes mellitus is diagnosed based on a high level of glucose or sugar in the blood. The doctor may suspect diabetes mellitus after taking the medical history and doing a physical examination.


In early diabetic retinopathy there are small dilations of the capillary walls in the retina which is called as micro aneurysms. At this stage good control of diabetes and regular follow up examination of the retina is necessary.


5. DIABETES AND KIDNEY

In the beginning stages of kidney damage, traces of protein also called 'albumin' begins to appear in the urine. This stage is called MICROALBUMINURIA. Early kidney damage has no symptoms and can be treated with diet and medicines and is reversible.

Diabetic kidney damage

 



The prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in the Indian population now ranks first in the world even ahead of China. In the last twenty years there has been a three fold increase in the prevalence of diabetes and today it is estimated that there are over 32 million people with diabetes in India.

Screening

Tertiary prevention refers to the rehabilitative measures once the complications have set in. For example, for Diabetic Retinopathy, Laser Photocoagulation will help to prevent or reduce the incidence of blindness. Laser photocoagulation helps to seal leaking blood vessels in the retina and thus prevent visual loss.

Time: Exercise should last for at least 30 minutes and go up to one hour if possible. There should be a warm up and cool down period for each session.


Food should be distributed into small frequent feeds. Skipping a meal or fasting is not really advisable.



Carrot, beetroot, peas and double beans can be used in moderation

FOODS TO BE INCLUDED
Whole Grains Vegetable Salad

Apple, orange, sweet lime, papaya, guava, pear, muskmelon and watermelon etc., may be taken in consultation with Diabetologist /Dietitian when blood sugar is under control.

FOODS TO BE AVOIDED
Potatoes Jaggery
Sweets Fruit Juices

 

To remember

Source

Jenkins et aI., 1981; Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 34: 392, 1981.

Raghuram et aI., Diabetes Bull., 7: 64, 1987.

Dilwari et al., Diet, Digestion & Diabetes, 1987.

Cited from: Raghuram, T. C. et al, 2000, Diet and Diabetes, National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, 500 007.

Srilakshmi .B 2003.Dietetics, New Age International (P) Publishers Ltd.Chennai.

http://doctor.ndtv.com/Diabetes/

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