Expert System For Sugarcane

Nutrient Management

About Nutrient Management


Introduction


  • Among various riputes of sugarcane production, although nutrients contribute maximum to the increase in yield.

  • During vegetation the sugarcane consumes many nutrients.

  • There is no doubt that sugarcane crop needs nutrients. The most active uptake of nutrients is observed during the early stage of the sugarcane plant, during tillering (from the third to the sixth months after planting).

  • The nutrient needs of sugarcane can be assessed by soil analysis, plant tissue analysis and / or deficiency symptoms. A combination of these three methods gives the most complete inventory of the nutrient status of a crop.

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Role of Nutrient


Plants require 16 essential nutrient elements. Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are derived from the atmosphere and soil water. The remaining 13 essential elements (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, zinc, manganese, copper, boron, molybdenum, and chlorine) are supplied either from soil minerals and soil organic matter or by organic or inorganic fertilizers. These nutrients are essential for proper crop development. Each is equally important to the plant.

Major Nutrient


Nitrogen

  • Influences sugarcane yield and quality.

  • Required for vegetative growth (tillering, foliage formation, stalk formation and growth) and root growth.

  • Vegetative growth in sugarcane is directly related to yield.

  •  Excess Nitrogen leads to:

    1. harmful to crop

    2. prolongs vegetative growth

    3. delays maturity and ripening

    4. increases reducing sugar content in juice

    5. lowering juice quality

    6. increases soluble N in juice affecting clarification

    7. susceptible to lodging, pest and disease incidence


Phosphorus

  • Uptake depends on presence of soluble and plant absorbable form.

  • P- requirement is relatively less than N and K.

  • Necessary for formation of proteins and thus for yield build up.

  • Important for cell division leads to crop growth

  • Stimulates root growth

  • Necessary for plant metabolism and photo synthesis

  • Required for adequate tillering

  • Interacts with N and thus enhance ripening.

  • Excess P is wasted due to fixation in soil


Potassium

  • Requirement of K is greater than N and P.

  • Required for carbon assimilation, photo synthesis translocation of carbohydrates

  • Involved in various enzymatic activities

  • Important for sugar synthesis and translocation to the storage organs.

  • Develops resistance to sugarcane against pest, disease and lodging.

  • Maintains cell turgidity under moisture stress conditions.

  • Balances the effect of N and P

  • Excess availability of K leads to "Luxury consumption".

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Minor Nutrients


Sulphur:

  • It is essential for synthesis of amino acids, protein and vitamins in sugarcane.

  • It increases the juice quality, CCS% and cane yield,

           


Zinc:

  • It is essential for bio synthesis of plant growth regulator. Activity of various enzymes also depended upon the presence of zinc.


Manganese:

  • It is activator of many enzymes involve in protein synthesis of sugarcane.

  • It increasing the yield, quality and nutrient content of sugarcane crop.


Boron:

  • The main functions of boron  relate to cell wall strength and development, cell division

  • For cane development, sugar transport, and hormone development.

 


Magnesium:

  • Mg is the central element of the chlorophyll molecule.

  • Carrier of Phosphorus in the plant

  • Magnesium is both an enzyme activator and a constituent of many enzymes

  • Sugar synthesis


Copper:

  • It is a constituent of several enzyme systems involved in building and converting amino acids to proteins.

  • Copper is important in carbohydrate and protein metabolism.

  • It is important to the formation of lignin in plant cell walls which contributes to the structural strength of the cells, and the cane.

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Nutrient Application

Basal application


Basal application of organic manures:
1. Apply FYM at 12.5 t/ha or compost 25 t/ha or filter press mud at 37.5 t/ha before the last ploughing under gardenland conditions.
2. In wetlands this may be applied along the furrows and incorporated well.


Basal Application of Fertilizer

  1. Test the soil and apply P fertilizer based on soil test values. Otherwise apply super phosphate (375 kg/ha) along the furrows and incorporate with hand hoe.
  2. Apply 37.5 kg Zinc sulphate/ha and 100 kg Ferrous sulphate/ha to zinc and iron deficient soils.
  1. Apply phosphorus in the furrow bottom and mix slightly with soil before planting.
  2. Nitrogen and potassium fertilizer are given in split doses, applied in bands on either side of the cane row.

Top Dressing with Fertilizers


Soil application

  • Apply 275 kg of nitrogen and 112.5 kg of K2O/ha in three equal splits at 30, 60 and 90 days in coastal and flow irrigated belts (assured water supply areas).

  • In the case of lift irrigation belt, apply 225 kg of nitrogen and 112.5 kg of K2O/ha in three equal splits at 30, 60 and 90 days (water scarcity areas). For jaggery areas, apply 175 kg of nitrogen and 112.5 kg of K2O/ha in three equal splits on 30, 60 and 90 days.

  • Cover the fertilizer with soil immediately after placement to reduce volatilization losses. This is also achieved by partial earthing after first top dressing and full earthing up after second top dressing.

Foliar application


  • Foliar nutrition of urea (1 to 2.5%) and potassium (2.5%) under moisture stress is a useful practice to improve cane yield and quality.

  • Foliar application of DAP formed to be useful to improve yield and quality.

  • Good foliage wetting is necessary. 'Teepol' can be used as a wetting agent.

  • Sprayings done preferably in the morning hours.

  • A boom sprayer may be used in a grown up crop.

For Nitrogen Saving


Neem Cake Blended Urea: Apply 67.5 kg of N/ha + 27.5 kg of Neem Cake at 30 days and repeat on 60th and 90th days.
Note: Neem cake blending:  Powder the required quantity of neem cake and mix it with urea thoroughly and keep it for 24 hours. Thus, 75 kg of nitrogen/ha can be saved by this method.

Azospirillum: Mix 12 packets (2400 g)/ha of Azospirillum inoculant or TNAU Biofert –1 with 25 kg of FYM and 25 kg soil and apply near the clumps on 30th day of planting. Repeat the same on 60th day with another 12 packets (2400 gm). Repeat the above on the other side of the crop row on the 90th day (for lift irrigated belt).

Band placement: Open deep furrows of 15 cm depth with hand hoes and place the fertilisers in the form of band and cover it properly.

Subsurface application: Application of 255 kg of Nitrogen in the form of urea along with potash at 15 cm depth by the side of the cane clump will result in the saving of 20 kg N/ha without any yield reduction.


Common Micronutrient mixture : To provide all micronutrients to sugarcane, 50 kg /ha of micronutrient mixture containing 20 kg Ferrous sulphate,10 kg Manganese sulphate, 10 kg Zinc sulphate, 5 kg of Copper sulphate, 5 kg of Borax mixed with 100 kg of well decomposed FYM, can be recommended as soil application prior to planting.


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Organic manure


Farm yard manure:

  • For sugarcane, apply 12.5 t/ha of FYM before the last ploughing.

  • An average well decomposed farmyard manure contains 0.5 per cent N, 0.2 per cent P2O5and 0.5 per cent K2O.

  • When cow dung and urine are mixed, a balanced nutrition is made available for cane growth.

    


Green manure:

  • Sow green manure crops like daincha or sunhemp on one side of the ridges on 3rd or 4th day after planting sugarcane and raise it as an intercrop with sugarcane. Harvest and insitu incorporate the intercrop around 45 days after transplanting.

  • Green manure adds about 7.5 to 25 tonnes of green matter per ha contributing about 10 – 30 kg N per ha. Daincha has around 0.62% N and sunhemp contains 0.75% N, 0.12% P2O5 and 0.51% K2O.


Press Mud:

  • Press Mud is a by-product of sugar industry. For every 100 tonnes of sugarcane crushed about 3 tonnes of press mud cake is left behind as by-product.

  • Apply 37.5 t/ha of press mud before planting. It contains 1.2%N, 2.1-2.4% P2O5 and 2.0% K2O.

  • It contains trace quantity of micronutrients and prevents soil erosion, crusting and cracking, adjust soil pH, improves drainage and promotes normal bacterial and microbial growth in the soil.

 


Reinforced compost from sugarcane trash and press mud:
            Spread the sugarcane trash to a thickness of 15 cm over an area of 7 m X 3 m.  Then apply pressmud over this trash to a thickness of 5 cm.  Sprinkle the fertilizer mixture containing mussoorie rock phosphate, gypsum and urea in the ration of 2:2:1 over these layers at the rate of 5 kg/100 kg of trash.  Moist the trash and pressmud layers adequately with water.  Repeat this process till the entire heap rises to a height of 1.5m. Use cowdung slurry instead of water to moist the layer wherever it is available.  Cover the heap with a layer of soil and pressmud at 1:1 ratio to a thickness of 15 cm.
            Leave the heap as such for three months for decomposition.  Moist the heap once in 15 days.  During rainy season, avoid moistening the heap.  After three months, turn and mix the heap thoroughly and form a heap and leave it for one month.  Then turn and mix heap thoroughly at the end of the fourth month.  Moist the heap once in 15 days during 4th and 5th month also.  This method increases the manurial value of trash compost by increasing, N, P and Ca content.  It also brings down the C:N ratio by 10 times as compared to raw cane trash.


Bio fertilizer:

  • Application of azospirillum gives atmospheric nitrogen to the sugarcane crop. By applying phosphobacteria crop can get undissolved phosphorous from soil without any loss.

  • Apply azospirillum 5 kg/ha, phosphobacteria 5 kg/ha and FYM 500 kg /ha mix it and apply on 30 days after planting along the furrow and irrigated it. Same repeated on 60th day. 

  • Bio fertilizer can also apply through fertigation.

  • Don’t mix the bio fertilizer and chemical fertilizer for application.

  • Apply bio fertilizer as 10- 15 days before or after application of chemical fertilizer.


Neem cake:

  • Neem cake is the residue left, after oil has been extracted from neem seed kernel.

  • It performs the dual function of both fertilizer as well as

  • It contains Nitrogen 2.0% to 5.0%, Phosphorus 0.5% to 1.0% and Potassium 1.0% to 2.0%.

  • Apply 27.5 kg/ha of neem cake on 30th, 60th and 90th day

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Nutritional disorders


Nitrogen:

  • All leaves of sugarcane exhibit a yellow – green colour.

  • Retardation of growth.

  • Cane stalks are smaller in diameter. 

  • Premature drying of older leaves.

  • Roots attain a greater length but are smaller in diameter.

Management:
            Soil application of N fertilizer or foliar spray of urea 1-2% twice at weekly interval.


 

Phosphorus:

  • Reduction in length of sugarcane stalks, diameters of which taper rapidly at growing points.

  • Colour of the leaves is greenish blue, narrow and somewhat reduce length.

  • Reduced tillering.

  • Decreased shoot / root ratio with restricted root development.

Management:
            Foliar spray of DAP 2% twice at fortnight interval


Potassium:

  • Depressed growth

  • Yellowing and marginal drying of older leaves and

  • Development of slender stalks.

  • Orange, yellow colour appears in the older lower leaves which develop numerous chlorotic spots that later become brown with dead centre result in ‘firing’ apperance.

  • Reddish discoloration which is confined to the epidermal cells of the upper surfaces and midribs of the leaves. Bunchy top apperance.

  • Poor root growth with less member of root hairs.

Management:
            Foliar spray of KCL 1% twice at fortnight interval


Zinc:

  • Earlier development of anthrocyanin pigments in the leaves.

  • Pronounced bleaching of the green colour along the major veins

  • Striped effect due to a loss of Chlorophyll along the veins.

  • At sever stage necrosis and growth ceases at the growing point (meristem).

Mangement:
Soil application of 37.5 kg Zinc sulphate/ha before the last ploughing.


Iron:

  • Young leaves where pale stripes with scanty chlorophyll content occur between parallel lines.

  • Leaves turn completely white, even in the veins and midribs.

  • Restricted Root growth.

Management:
            Soil application of 25kg/ha of FeSO4 or foliar spray of FESO4 0.5% on 90, 105 and 120 days after planting.


Calcium:

  • Mottling and chlorosis of older leaves

  • Spindles often become necrotic at the leaf tip and long margins

  • Rusty appearance and premature death of older leaves

Management:
            Soil application of 100kg/ha of gypsum


Magnesium:

  • Mottled or chlorotic appearance at the tip and margins

  • Red necrotic lesions resulting in "rusty" appearance

  • Internal browning of rind

Management:
            Soil application of MgSo4 25kg/ha or foliar spray of MgSo4 2% twice at fortnight interval.


Sulphur:

  • Chlorotic young leaves

  • Narrower and shorter leaves with faint purplish tinge

  • Slender stalks

Management:
It is advisable to use sulphur containing fertilisers:
Ammonium Sulphate - 24% S
Single Super Phosphate - 12% S
Potassium Sulphate - 18% S
Gypsum - 13-18% S 
Any one of the above fertilizers at the rate of 10-20 kg/ha.


Molybdenum:

  • Short longitudinal chlorotic streaks on the top one-third of the leaf.

  • Short and slender stalks

  • Slow vegetative growth.

Management:
Application of ammonium molybedate (54% Mo) and sodium molybdate (39% Mo) are common
sources of Mo to reactify its deficiency in soils and crops.

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INTEGRATED NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT


  • In many sugarcane growing areas, the productivity of the soils has declined due to intensive cropping and lack of proper soil fertility management practices. The soil productivity can be restored through rationalized integrated nutrient management (INM) involving organic manures, fertilisers and biofertilisers.

  • Bulky organic manures like farmyard manure, compost and pressmud must be incorporated into the soil at the rate of 15 to 25 t/ha before planting

  • Sunnhemp green manure can be grown as intercrop and incorporated into the soil around 30 to 45 days after planting.

  • Soil-test based fertiliser schedules are advisable. When this is not possible, a blanket schedule of 275-65-115 kg of N, P and K can be adopted.

  • Phosphatic fertilisers, preferably super phosphates can be applied basally or at the time of first hoeing and weeding during 30 to 45 days after planting.

  • Nitrogenous and potassic fertilisers must be applied in four splits, first split during 30 45 days, second split during 60-75 days, third split during 90 105 days and fourth split during 120 135 days after planting.

  • The efficiency of urea can be enhanced by blending it with neem cake powder in 4:1 ratio, a day before application. It is advisable to apply the mixture of urea and potash fertiliser in holes of 10 cm depth at intervals of 15 cm spacing on the sides of the plant rows.

  • Fifty kg of micronutrient mixture/ha made up of 20 kg of ferrous sulphate, 10 kg of manganous sulphate, 10 kg of zinc sulphate, 5 kg of copper sulphate and 5 kg of borax may be applied basally in the planting furrows.

  • When the chlorotic symptoms due to deficiency of iron or zinc are observed on the leaves of the crop, 5 kg of ferrous sulphate, 2.5 kg of zinc sulphate and 5 kg of urea per hectare may be dissolved in 500 litres of water and sprayed over the foliage. If necessary, one or two more sprayings can be given at intervals of 15 days.

  • Azospirillum and phosphobacteria biofertilisers at 10 kg each/ha may be mixed with 10 kg of compost and applied basally in the planting furrows or at the time of first hoeing and weeding during 30 45 days after planting. The soil pH must be maintained in the neutral range of 6.5 to 7.5 for the crop.


 

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Fertilizer Requirements

Tamil Nadu:

Sugarcane – plant crop (meant for sugar mills)
275: 62.5: 112.5 kg N, P2O5 and K2O per ha

Recommendation for Plant crop

Blanket Recommendation(Kg/ha)

           Straight Fertilizer(Kg/ha)

 

      N

      P

     K      

    Urea

Super phosphate

Muriate of potash

Basal

       -

     62.5

      -

        -

   390

        -

30-45 days

      90

       -

   37.5

     200

     -

     62.5

75-90 days

     92.5

       -

   37.5

     205

     -

     62.5

120-135 days after Planting

     92.5

       -

   37.5

     205

     -

     62.5

Total

275

62.5

112.5

610

390

187.5

Apply FYM at 12.5 t/ha or compost 25 t/ha or filter press mud at 37.5 t/ha before the last ploughing under gardenland conditions.


Sugarcane – Ratoon crop (meant for sugar mills)
                275 + 25% extra N: 62.5: 112.5 kg N, P2O5 and K2O per ha

Recommendation for Ratoon crop

Blanket Recommendation(Kg/ha)

           Straight Fertilizer(Kg/ha)

 

      N

      P

     K      

    Urea

Super phosphate

Muriate of potash

Basal

    68.5

     62.5

      -

     148

   390

        -

30-45 days

      90

       -

   37.5

     200

     -

     62.5

75-90 days

     92.5

       -

   37.5

     205

     -

     62.5

120-135 days after ratooning

     92.5

       -

   37.5

     205

     -

     62.5

Total

343.5

62.5

112.5

758

390

187.5


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Sugarcane for jaggery manufacture (plant as well as ratoon crop)
                 225: 62.5: 112.5 kg N, P2O5 and K2O per ha

Recommendation for jaggery manufacture

Blanket Recommendation(Kg/ha)

           Straight Fertilizer(Kg/ha)

 

      N

      P

     K      

    Urea

Super phosphate

Muriate of potash

Basal

       -

     62.5

      -

      -

   390

        -

30-45 days

      75

       -

   37.5

     162

     -

     62.5

75-90 days

      75

       -

   37.5

     162

     -

     62.5

120-135 DAP or DAR

      75

       -

   37.5

     162

     -

     62.5

Total

225

62.5

112.5

486

390

187.5


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Fertilizer Requirement for Sugarcane – KERALA

Pandalam and Thiruvalla areas:
            165: 82.5: 82.5 kg N, P2O5 and K2O per ha

Recommendation for Pandalam and Thiruvalla areas

Blanket Recommendation(Kg/ha)

           Straight Fertilizer(Kg/ha)

 

      N

      P

     K      

    Urea

Super phosphate

Muriate of potash

Basal

       -

     82.5

      -

      -

   515

        -

45 days

     82.5

       -

     41.5

    179

     -

      69

90 days

     82.5

       -

     41

    179

     -

      68

Total

165

82.5

82.5

358

515

137


Apply compost or cattle manure, 10 t/ha or press mud 5 t/ha or dolomite 500 kg/ha or calcium carbonate 750 kg/ha.

Apply N and K2O in two split doses, the first 45 days after planting and the second 90 days after planting along with earthing up. Do not apply N beyond 100 days after planting. Apply entire dose of phosphorus as basal dressing.

Chittoor area

225: 75: 75 kg N, P2O5 and K2O per ha

Recommendation for Chittoor area

Blanket Recommendation(Kg/ha)

           Straight Fertilizer(Kg/ha)

 

      N

      P

     K      

    Urea

Super phosphate

Muriate of potash

Basal

       -

     75

      -

      -

   468

        -

45 days

   112.5

       -

   37.5

    244

     -

       62

90 days

   112.5

       -

   37.5

    244

     -

       62

Total

225

75

75

488

468

124


Newly cleared forest areas:
            115: 75: 90 kg N, P2O5 and K2O per ha

Recommendation for Newly cleared forest areas

Blanket Recommendation(Kg/ha)

           Straight Fertilizer(Kg/ha)

 

      N

      P

     K      

    Urea

Super phosphate

Muriate of potash

Basal

       -

     75

      -

      -

   468

        -

45 days

   57.5

       -

    45

   124

     -

      74

90 days

   57.5

       -

    45

   124

     -

      74

Total

115

75

90

248

468

148


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Fertilizer Requirement for Sugarcane – KARNATAKA
            Recommended dose of fertilizer  i) 250 : 75 :150 kg/ha(Plant crop)
                                                                 ii) 315 : 75 : 190 kg/ha(Ratoon).

Recommendation for Plant crop

Blanket Recommendation(Kg/ha)

           Straight Fertilizer(Kg/ha)

 

      N

      P

     K      

    Urea

Super phosphate

Muriate of potash

Basal

       -

     75

      -

      -

   468

        -

60 days

    125

       -

    75

    271

     -

     124.5

90 days

    125

       -

    75

    271

     -

     124.5

Total

250

75

150

542

468

249


Recommendation for Ratoon crop

Blanket Recommendation(Kg/ha)

           Straight Fertilizer(Kg/ha)

 

      N

      P

     K      

    Urea

Super phosphate

Muriate of potash

Basal

       -

     75

      -

      -

   468

        -

60 days

   157.5

       -

     95

    341

     -

     157

90 days

   157.5

       -

     95

    341

     -

     157

Total

315

75

190

682

468

314


Other fertilizers

10:26:26 complex, Urea and Muriate of potash recommended dose in kg/ha

Fertilizers

Before planting

45th day

90th day

10:26:26 complex

250

-

-

urea

-

280

280

Muriate of potash

-

50

50

17:17:17 complex, Urea and Muriate of potash recommended dose in kg/ha

Fertilizers

Before planting

45th day

90th day

17:17:17 complex

375

-

-

urea

-

235

235

Muriate of potash

-

50

50


DAP, Urea and Muriate of potash recommended dose in kg/ha

Fertilizers

Before planting

45th day

90th day

DAP

135

-

-

urea

-

280

280

Muriate of potash

-

100

100


20:20 complex, Urea and Muriate of potash recommended dose in kg/ha

Fertilizers

Before planting

45th day

90th day

20:20 complex

315

-

-

urea

-

240

240

Muriate of potash

-

100

100

 

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