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Crop Protection :: Pests of Grapes

Insect pests of grapes

Crop: Grapes

S.N: Vitis vinifera

Family: Vitaceae

Pests

Major pests of Grapes

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A. STEM GIRDLER
1. Sthenias grisator 

Symptoms of damage

  • Wilting of branches and then the entire vine.
Cane girdler injury

Identification of the pest

  • Grub - Head is dark brown colour, pair of strong mandibles.
  • Adult – Medium sized, grey coloured with a white spot in the center of each elytra.
Adult

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Management

  • Remove loose bark at the time of pruning to prevent egg laying

  • Collect and destroy damaged plant parts

  • Swab trunk with carbaryl 50 WP 2g/ lit

  • Spray application of anf following insecticides

    • phosalone 35 EC 0.07%
    • quinalphos 25 EC 0.05%
    • carbaryl 50 WP  0.1%, first round immediately after pruning and repeat it 2-3 times

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2. Grape vein beetleSinoxylon anale 
Symptoms of damage

  • Wilting of branches and then the entire vine

Identification of the pest

  • Adult - dark-brown colour with 3 bladed antennae

  • pair of spines on the posterior end of the elytra.

  • Grub - fleshly, thick yellowish and white with curved body.

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B. LEAF FEEDERS 
3. Flea beetleScelodonta strigicollis 
Symptoms of damage

  • Caused two type of damages
  • Larvae and adults feed on the upper and lower leaf surfaces – leaf injury
  • Adult feed on swollen grape buds
  • Chew holes in the sides of the newly developing grape buds
  • Small holes on tender leaves by adult
  • Root damage by grub
Shot holes 

Identification of the Pest

  • Adult - Reddish brown, shiny with six spots on elytra
  • Grub – brown in colour and black colour head
Larva
Adult

Management

  • Remove the loose bark at the time of pruning  to prevent egg laying

  • Shake vines to dislodge adult beetles

  • Collect into trays containing kerosenated water and destroy them

  • Insecticide: phosalone 35 EC 0.07%  after pruning

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4. Leaf rollerSylepta lunalis

Symptoms of damage
  • Caterpillar - rolling of leaves.
  • Scrabbing the chlorophyll content inside the leaf roll
  • Skeletonization of  leaves
Skeletonization
Scrabbing of leaves


Identification of the pest 

  • Larva - Pale green with short hairs.
  • Adult - Brownish moth with wavy line.

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5. SphingidHippotion celerio 
Symptoms of damage

    • Defoliation.

Identification of the pest

  • Larva - Stout and green with an anal horn.
  • Adult - Robust, red and brown coloured moth.
Larva
Pupa
Adult

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C. SAP FEEDERS
6. Thrips
Rhipiphorothrips cruentatus
Symptoms of damage

  • Presence of silvery white scorchy patches on the leaves.
  • Veins without fruits
  • Premature fruit drop

Identification of the pest

  • Nymphs - yellowish brown colour and red colour abdomen
  • Adult - black brownish abdomen and yellowish wings
Adult

Management

  • Collect and destroy damaged leaves, fruits and flowers

  • Insecticides: methyl demeton 25 EC  0.05% or dimethoate 30 EC 0.06%

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7. Mealy bug Ferrisia virgata

Symptoms of damage
  • Premature dropping of fruit.

Identification of the pest

  • Nymph - Yellowish to pale white.
  • Adult - long, slender covered with white waxy secretions
Adult

Management

  • Debark vines and branches and apply methyl parathion paste

  • Collect damaged bark, leaves, twigs and stems

  • Use sticky traps  on fruit – bearing shoots at a length of 5 cm

  • Use dichlorvos 76 WSC 0.15% in combination with fish oil rosin soap (25g//)

  • Soil application of aldicarb 10 G/ vine around the base at time of pruning

  • Insecticides

    • dimethoate 30 EC plus kerosene oil at 150 ml plus 250 ml in 100 ml of water
    • Apply quinalphos or  methyl parathion dust in the soil at 25 kg/ ha to kill ants
    • Release exotic predator, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri @ 10 beetles/vine
    • Field release of parasitoids - Anagrus dactylopii, Gyanusoidea mirzai

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8. Mealy bug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus 
Symptoms of damage

  • Nymphs and adults suck the sap from leaves, shoots and fruits

  • Honey dew – development of sooty mould on leaves, shoots and branches

  • Crinkling and yellowing of leaves

  • Rotting of berries

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Identification of the pest

  • Nymph - pinkish in colour.
  • Adult – pink colour and covered with white wax
Pink mealy bug

Management

  • Apply quinalphos or methyl parathion dust in the soil @ 20 kg/ha to kill the ants.

  • Spray methyl demeton 25 EC or monocrotophos 36 WSC at the rate of 2 ml/lit of water

  • Spray dichlorvos 76 WSC at the rate of 1 ml/lit with fish oil rosin soap at 25 g/lit.

  • Release Coccinellid beetle, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri at the rate of 10 per vine.

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9. Berry plume mothOxyptilus regulus 
Symptoms of damage

  • Early instar larvae web the flower buds

  • Matured larvae attack bunch of fruit

  • Caterpillar bore into green berry fruit and tunneling

  • Feeds on internal content

  • Affected berries – known as “stung berries”

Larva attack grape bunch
Affected berries (stung berries)

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Identification of the pest

  • Larva - Small, pale green or pink with median red line.
  • Adult - Small moth.
Adult

Management

  • Collect and destroy the infested leaves and buried with soil

  • Summer ploughing – kill the pupae

  • Use pheromone trap to attract male and kill the adult

  • Spot application of bubrofezin and acetemprid for effective manage this pest


 


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