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Crop Protection :: Pests of Citrus

Insect pests of citrus

Common name: Citrus

S.N: Citrus spp

Family:Rutaceae

Pests

Major pests of Citrus

I. Sap feeders
Citrus aphids Black aphid: Toxoptera aurantii
Brown aphid: Toxoptera citricida
Symptoms Identification Management
Citrus Black fly, Aleurocanthus woglumi Symptoms Identification Management
Citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Symptoms Identification Management
Mealy bug, Planoccus citri Symptoms Identification Management
Fruit sucking moth, Otheris materna, O. ancilla, O. fullonica Symptoms Identification Management
Citrus thrips, Thrips nilgiriensis Symptoms Identification Management
Cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi Symptoms Management
II. Leaf feeders
Citrus leaf miner, Phyllocnistic citrella Symptoms Identification Management
Citrus butterfly , Papilio demolious, P. Polytes, P.helenus Symptoms Identification Management

1. Sap feeders
1. Citrus aphids 
Black aphidToxoptera aurantii, 
Brown aphidToxoptera citricida

Symptoms of damage
  • Feed on tender foliage and flowers.
  • Transmit tristeza virus disease.
  • Nymphs and adults suck the sap of leaves
  • Wilting and flower dropping
  • Infested leaves - cup shaped and crinkled
  • Growth of the plants is hindered.
Crinkling of leaves

Identification of the pest

Adult wingless forms (apterae)   Adult winged forms (alatae)

Management

  • Use yellow sticky trap
  • Spray with methyl demeton (Metasystox) or dimethoate (Rogar) 2ml /lit
  • Use some concinellid beetles and syrphid flies

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2. Citrus Black fly, Aleurocanthus woglumi 
Symptoms of damage

http://www.ikisan.com/Images/cit_im_blcflylf.jpg http://www.ikisan.com/Images/cit_im_blcflylf1.jpg
  • The cell sap is sucked from the leaves -  piercing stylet
  •  Leaf curling.
  • Leaves fall off immaturely.
  • Honey dew secrecation development of sooty mould fungus.
  • Leaf turns to black in colour and affects photosynthetic activity of the leaves.
  • Affected trees produce - few blossoms which develop into inspid fruits.
Black flies on leaf Close-up of Black flies

Identification of the pest

  • Nymphs - are flattened, oval in shape and scale like in appearance.
  • Adult - minute insect, shiny black with grey dusting on the body.
  • Wings are extending beyond the tip of the abdomen.
 
Black fly on leaves

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Management

  • Collect and destroy the damaged plant parts along with nymphs, pupa and adults
  • Spray with 2 ml of chloropyriphos per litre of water
  • followed by a second spray after 15 days with 1.5ml of monocrotophos
  • Ffemale lays eggs on lower surface of leaves in a form of three (15-22 eggs/whorl) whorls
  • The entire plant canopy should be drenched with the solution.
  • Encourage activity of parasitoids, Encarsia sp., Eretomocerus serius and chlysoperla sp.

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3. Citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri 
Symptoms of damage

  • Both nymphs and adults suck sap from the plants and injection of toxic saliva.
  • Nymphs - are more destructive, crowd on the terminal shoots, buds and tender leaves
  • Excrete honeydew - growth of sooty moulds.
  • Affected plant parts dry and die away
  • It is transmits the "Greening" virus
    http://www.ikisan.com/Images/cit_im_psylla.jpg http://www.ikisan.com/Images/cit_im_psylla2.jpg
    Psyllid infested plants    Sooty mould on leaves

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Identification of the pest

  • Eggs – are almond shaped yellow colour eggs, present on the bolds of half opened leaves
  • Nymphs – are flattish, oval in shape and light orange colour.
  • Adult – small, brown in colour and brown colour band present on the half of fore wing
http://www.ikisan.com/Images/cit_im_psylla1.jpg
Egg
Nymphs
Adult

Management

  • Collect and destroy the damaged plant parts
  • Spraying with systemic insecticides at flush growth periods
  • Spray malathion 0.05% or monocrotophos 0.036% or carbaryl 0.1% or methyl parathion 0.05%.
  • Encourage the activities natural enemies such as Syrphids and Chrysopids

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4. Mealy bug, Planoccus citri
  • Both nymphs and adults suck the sap from the cells of tender branches and fruits
  • Turn pale colour
  •  Affected plant parts - wilt and dry up.
Symptoms of damage
Mealy bug on fruits
  • Large amounts of honey dew excrete - sooty mould fungus.
  • Fungus covers the foliage and fruits
  • In severe infestation the flowers do not form fruits.

Identification of the pest

  • Eggs – are laid in clusters, protective cottony mass

  • Nymphs – are amber coloured with white waxy coating with filaments
  • Adult - Male is winged, long antenna and without mouth parts.
  • Female is wingless, flat body and short, waxy filaments along the margins
 
Egg mass
Adult female and crawlers
 

Management

  • Collect and destroy the damaged leaves, twigs and stems
  • Debark branches and apply methyl parathion paste
  • Use sticky trap (5cm length) on fruit bearing shoots
  • Spray dichlorvas 0.2% in combination with fish oil rosin soap 25g/lit
  • Single soil application of aldicarb 10G at 50g/tree at the time of pruning
  • Spraying of trees with methyl parathion 2ml or monocrotophos 1.5ml per /lit of water
  • Soil treatment with chlorophyriphos apply on the near the tree trunk
  • Spraying of trees with acephate, methomyl, or chlorpyriphos.
  • Field release of Australian lady bird beetle Cryptoleamus montrouizeri 10 per tree

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5. Fruit sucking mothOtheris materna, O. ancilla, O. fullonica
http://www.ikisan.com/Images/cit_im_ftsuck.jpg Symptom of damage
  • Adult pierce the fruit and suck the juice
  • Rottening at the feeding site
  • Fruit dropping
Affected fruit

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Identification of the pest
O. fullonica

  • Larva – orange blue and yellow spots on velvety dark speckled on the body
  • Adult – stout moth and orange coloured wing
  • Otheris materna – three black spots on the fore wing 
 
 
Female     

  Male     

                                                                                       

  • O. ancilla – white colour band in the middle fore wing

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Management

  • Destroy the weed host Tinospora cardifolia and coccules pendules
  • Bag the fruit with polythene bag (500 gauge)
  • Apply smoke to prevent adult moth
  • Trap crop – growing tomato crop in orchards to attract the adult moth
  • Poison bait
    • dilute suspension of fermented molasses and malathion 0.05% (50 EC at 1ml/lit)
  • Use light trap or food lure to attract moths

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6Citrus thripsThrips nilgiriensis
Symptom of damage
  • Nymphs and adults lacerate the leaf tissue and suck the sap from fruits
  • Leaf curling
  • Ring like appearance on the fruit         
  • Irregular mottled patches on rind

 

Scarring on Fruit Shoot damage         leaf damage

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Identification of the pest

Adult – yellowish, fringed wing

Adult - Thrips

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Management
  • Collect and destroy the damaged plant parts
  • Spraying with systemic insecticides at flush growth periods
  • Spray malathion 0.05% or monocrotophos 0.036% or carbaryl 0.1% .
  • Encourage the activities natural enemies such as Syrphids and Chrysopid

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7. Cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi

Symptoms of damage

  • Nymphs and adults suck the sap from leaves
  • Honey dew excretion
  • Development of sooty mould fungus

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Identification of the pest

  • White, ribbed masses that hold up to 800 red eggs.
  • Nymphs are red with black legs and antennae.
  • Adults are covered in white hair.
Cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi

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Management

  • Spray dormant oil in late winter before spring.
  • Spray horticultural oil, if needed, year round.
  • Apply mixture of manure compost tea, molasses, citrus oil.
  • Garlic-pepper tea also helps.
  • Natural predators usually keep this insect in check.
  • Control ants and dust which can give the scale a competitive advantage.
  • Field release of vedalia and Australian ladybugs.

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II. Leaf feeder
8. Citrus leaf miner, Phyllocnistic citrella
Symptom of damage

  • Caterpillars are attacked tender leaves and feed on the epidermis
  • Making silvery appearance presence on the lower surface of leaves
  • Leaves – distorted and crinkled
  • Severe attack caused defoliation
  • Encourage the incidence of citrus canker    
http://www.ikisan.com/Images/cit_im_miner.jpg  
Serpentine larva
crinkled leaves
 

                                     

Identification of the pest
  • Eggs – are minute, flattened presence on the lower side of the midrib
  • Larvae – minute, yellowish or reddish and apodous.
  • Settled down on the edge of the folded leaves
  • Adult – minute moth, black spot at the tip of the fore wing

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Management
  • Spraying of monocrotophos [Nuvacron] 1.5ml, fenvalerate 0.2ml or dimethoate [Rogor] 2ml
  • mixed in a litre of water at weekly intervals at the time of emergence of new flush.
  • Spray application of NSKE 5% 

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9. Citrus butterfly , Papilio demolious, P. Polytes, P.helenus
Symptom of damage

  • Caterpillars prefers on light green tender leaves
  • Feeding voraciously and leaving only the mid-ribs
  • Severe infestation the entire tree gets defoliated.
Defoliation
Larva feeding

  

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Identification of the pest
Larvae
  • Early stage larva resembles bird dropping
  • Grown up larva – cylindrical, stout, green and brown lateral bond



First instar
Second instar



Third instar
Fourth instar with osmotoria

 

Life cycle
Grown up larva

Adult

  • Dark brown swallowtail butterfly with numerous yellow marking
Papilio demolious
Papilio polytes

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Management

  • Hand pick the larvae and destroy
  • First instar - Spraying of 1.5ml monocrotophos (Nuvacron), 1ml DDVP (Nuvan)
  • Field release of parasitoids Trichogramme evanescens and Telenomus sp on eggs
  • Brachymeria sp on larvae and Pterolus sp. on pupae. 

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