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Crop Protection :: Pest of Red Gram

Crop name: Red gram

Scientific Name : Cajanus cajan

Family: Leuminacaceae

 

I. Borers

II. Sap feeders

III. Leaf Feeders

IV. Flower Feeder


Major pests of Red Gram
I. Borer
1. Gram pod borer: Helicoverpa armigera
Symptoms of damage 
  • Defoliation in early stages
  • Larva’s head alone thrust inside the pods and the rest of the body hanging out.
  • Pods with round holes
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Bore holes on the pod
Larva feeding the pod 
   Damaged pod
 
Identification of the pest
  • Eggs – are spherical in shape and creamy white in colour, laid singly
  • Larva - shows colour variation from greenish to brown. Green with dark brown grey lines laterally on the body with lateral white lines and also has dark and pale bands.
  • Pupa – brown in colour, occurs in soil, leaf, pod and crop debris
  • Adult - light pale brownish yellow stout moth. Fore wing grey to pale brown with V shaped speck.Hind wings are pale smoky white with a broad blackish outer margin. 

Egg Larva Pupa Adult

Management

  • For pod borers, raise one row of sunflower as intercrop for
    every 9 rows of pigeon pea and plant maize as border crop.
  • Pheromone traps for Helicoverpa armigera 12/ha
    115
  • Bird perches 50/ha
  • Mechanical collection of grown up larva and blister beetle
  • Ha NPV 3 x1012 POB/ha in 0.1% teepol
  • Apply any one of the following insectcides:
  • Azadirachtin 0.03 % WSP 2500-5000 g/ha
  • Bacillus thuringiensis serovar kurstaki (3a,3b,3c) 5%WP1000-1250 g/ha
  • Dimethoate 30% EC 1237 ml/ha
  • Emamectin benzoate 5% SG 220 g/ha
  • Indoxacarb 15.8% SC 333 ml/ha
  • Chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC 150ml/ha
  • Spinosad 45%SC 125-162 ml/ha
  • NSKE 5% twice followed by triazophos 0.05%
  • Neem oil 2%
  • Phosalone 0.07%
    (Spray fluid 625 ml/ha) Note : Insecticide / Ha NPV spray
 
2. Blue butterfly: Lampides boeticus

Symptoms of damage

  • Buds, flowers and young pods with boreholes
  • Presence of slug like caterpillar.
  • Honey dew secretion with black ant movements

Identification of the pest

  • Larva – It is flat and slightly rounded; Pale green with a rough skin.
  • Adult - moth is greyish blue with prominent black spots in the hind wings and a long tail; Ventral side of wings with numerous stripes and brown spots

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Management
  • Avoid dense and close planting
  •  Avoid early or late sowing
  •  Regular soil digging cause death of larvae and pupae
  •  Egg parasitoid, Trichogramma spp.,
  •  Larval parasitoids, Hyperencyrtus lucoenephila and Litrodromus crassipes
  • Carbaryl 50 WP@ 1000 kg / ha
 
3. Grass blue butterfly: Euchrysops cnejus

Symptoms of damage

  • Buds, flowers and young pods with boreholes and presence of slug like caterpillar.
  • Larval entry hole on the pod is plugged with excreta.

Identification of the pest

  • Larva - pale green or yellow with a red line and short black hairs on the body.
  • Adult - butterfly is blue, medium sized with 5 black spots in the hind wings and two    black spots in the inner margin.

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Management of pod borer complex

  • ETL 10% affected parts
  • Deep summer ploughing in 2-3 years to eliminate quiescent pupa.
  • Early sowing, short duration varieties.
  • Avoid closer plant spacing.
  • Grow tall sorghum as comparison crop to serve as biological bird perches
  • Collect and destroy larvae and adults to the extent possible
  • Install pheromone traps at a distance of 50 m @ 5 traps/ha for each insect pest.
  • Install Bird perches @ 50/ha.
  • Setting of light traps (1 light trap/5 acre) to kill moth population.
  • Control is achieved by releasing of Trichogramma chlionis at weekly intervals @1.5 lakh/ha/ week for four times.
  • Conserve green lacewing, predatory stink bugs, spider, ants
  • Application of NPV 250 LE /ha with teepol 0.1% and Jaggery 0.5% thrice at 10 – 15 days interval commencing from flowering stage. (Note: Insecticide / Ha NPV spray should be applied when the larvae are in early stage).
  • Bt @ 600 g, neem oil/ pungum oil 80 EC @ 2ml/lit
  • Spray NSKE 5% twice followed by triazophos 0.05%.
  • Apply any one of insecticides at 25 kg/ha quinalphos 4D, carbaryl 5D
  • Spray insecticide Quinalphos 25 EC @ 1000 ml/ha.
 
4. Plume moth: Exelastis atomosa

Symptoms of damage

  • Pin head  size holes on  pods
  • Small spiny caterpillars and pupae seen on the pods 

 

Identification of the pest

  • Larva - is greenish brown, fringed with radiating hairs and spines
  • Adult - is delicate, brown coloured small moth with plumed wings.
Eggs Larva Pupa Adult

Management:

ETL: 5/plant

  • Bird perches 50/ha
  • Mechanical collection of grown up larva and blister beetle
  • Ha NPV 3 x1012 POB/ha in 0.1% teepol
  • Apply any one of the following insectcides:
  • Azadirachtin 0.03 % WSP 2500-5000 g/ha
  • Bacillus thuringiensis serovar kurstaki (3a,3b,3c) 5%WP1000-1250 g/ha
  • Dimethoate 30% EC 1237 ml/ha
  • Emamectin benzoate 5% SG 220 g/ha
  • Indoxacarb 15.8% SC 333 ml/ha
  • Chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC 150ml/ha
  • Spinosad 45%SC 125-162 ml/ha
  • NSKE 5% twice followed by triazophos 0.05%
  • Neem oil 2%
  • Phosalone 0.07%
    (Spray fluid 625 ml/ha) Note : Insecticide / Ha NPV spray
 
5. Spotted pod borer: Maruca testulalis

Symptoms of damage

  • Bore holes on the buds, flower or pods
  • Infested pods and flowers are webbed together.
DSCN5126 4

 

 

Identification of the pest

  • Larva - Greenish white with brown head. It has two pairs of dark spots on the back of each segment
  • Adult - Forewings- light brown colour with white markings; Hindwings – white colour with brown markings at the lateral edge

Egg Larva Pupa Adult

ETL: 5/plant

  • Bird perches 50/ha
  • Mechanical collection of grown up larva and blister beetle
  • Ha NPV 3 x1012 POB/ha in 0.1% teepol
  • Apply any one of the following insectcides:
  • Azadirachtin 0.03 % WSP 2500-5000 g/ha
  • Bacillus thuringiensis serovar kurstaki (3a,3b,3c) 5%WP1000-1250 g/ha
  • Dimethoate 30% EC 1237 ml/ha
  • Emamectin benzoate 5% SG 220 g/ha
  • Indoxacarb 15.8% SC 333 ml/ha
  • Chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC 150ml/ha
  • Spinosad 45%SC 125-162 ml/ha
  • NSKE 5% twice followed by triazophos 0.05%
  • Neem oil 2%
  • Phosalone 0.07%
    (Spray fluid 625 ml/ha) Note : Insecticide / Ha NPV spray
 
6. Spiny pod borer: Etiella zinckenella

Symptoms of damage

  • Dropping of flowers and young pods
  • Older pods marked with a brown spot where a larvae has entered
Identification of the pest
  • Larva – greenish initially, turns pink before pupation.
  • It has 5 black spots on the prothorax

Adult

  • Brownish grey moth 
  • Prothorax – orange in colour
  • Fore wing - has a white stripe along the anterior margin

 
7. Field bean pod borer: Adisura atkinsoni

Symptoms of damage

  • The larva bores inside the pod and feeds on the seeds within.

Identification of the pest
  • Larva - greenish having brown lateral marking
  • It has humped anal segment

Adult

  • Moths are yellowish brown in colour
  • Forewings - yellow coloured with ‘V’ shaped specks 
  • Hindwings – has pale brown markings 
  • Management Put bird perches @ 50/ha
  • Mechanical collection of grown up larva and blister beetle

Management of pod borer complex

  • ETL 10% affected parts
  • Deep summer ploughing in 2-3 years to eliminate quiescent pupa.
  • Early sowing, short duration varieties.
  • Avoid closer plant spacing.
  • Grow tall sorghum as comparison crop to serve as biological bird perches
  • Collect and destroy larvae and adults to the extent possible
  • Install pheromone traps at a distance of 50 m @ 5 traps/ha for each insect pest.
  • Install Bird perches @ 50/ha.
  • Setting of light traps (1 light trap/5 acre) to kill moth population.
  • Control is achieved by releasing of Trichogramma chlionis at weekly intervals @1.5 lakh/ha/ week for four times.
  • Conserve green lacewing, predatory stink bugs, spider, ants
  • Application of NPV 250 LE /ha with teepol 0.1% and Jaggery 0.5% thrice at 10 – 15 days interval commencing from flowering stage. (Note: Insecticide / Ha NPV spray should be applied when the larvae are in early stage).
  • Bt @ 600 g, neem oil/ pungum oil 80 EC @ 2ml/lit
  • Spray NSKE 5% twice followed by triazophos 0.05%.
  • Apply any one of insecticides at 25 kg/ha. chlorpyriphos 1.5 % DP, quinalphos 4D, carbaryl 5D
  • Spray insecticides like Carbaryl 10% DP (or) Quinalphos 25 EC @ 1000 ml/ha.
 
8. Red gram pod fly: Melanagromyza obtusa

Symptoms

  • Dark brown encrustation on the pod wall
  • Dry pods showing pin head size hole,
  • Seeds shriveled, striped and partially eaten
Identification of the pest
  • Larva - greenish having brown lateral marking
  • It has humped anal segment

Adult

  • Moths are yellowish brown in colour
  • Forewings - yellow coloured with ‘V’ shaped specks 
  • Hindwings – has pale brown markings 
  • Management Put bird perches @ 50/ha
  • Mechanical collection of grown up larva and blister beetle
Egg Larva Pupa Adult

Management

    • Bird perches 50/ha
    • Mechanical collection of grown up larva and blister beetle
    • Ha NPV 3 x1012 POB/ha in 0.1% teepol
    • Apply any one of the following insectcides:
    • Azadirachtin 0.03 % WSP 2500-5000 g/ha
    • Bacillus thuringiensis serovar kurstaki (3a,3b,3c) 5%WP1000-1250 g/ha
    • Dimethoate 30% EC 1237 ml/ha
    • Emamectin benzoate 5% SG 220 g/ha
    • Indoxacarb 15.8% SC 333 ml/ha
    • Chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC 150ml/ha
    • Spinosad 45%SC 125-162 ml/ha
    • NSKE 5% twice followed by triazophos 0.05%
    • Neem oil 2%
    • Phosalone 0.07%
      (Spray fluid 625 ml/ha) Note : Insecticide / Ha NPV spray
 
9. Stem fly: Ophiomyia phaseoli 
Symptoms of damage
  • Drooping of the tender leaves and – seedling wilt
  • Yellowing of young plants.
  • Stem become swollen and start ribbing where maggot and pupae are present
Identification of the pest
  • Maggot- Small yellow coloured
  • Adult -Tiny black fly
Management
  • Soil application of carbofuran 3G @ 15 kg/ha at sowing
  • Spray Imidacloprid 70 % WG 500 ml/ha a week after germination and second round 10 days after first round or NSKE 5%
  • Timely sowing also minimizes the attack of the pest
II. Sap Feeders
1. Pod bugs:  Riptortus pedestris

 Symptoms of damage 

  • Pods with black spots
  • Shedding of green pods
  • Poorly filled pods with shriveled grains inside

Identification of the pest

Riptortus pedestris

  • Brownish black and hemispherical 
  • Nymphs – resemble dark brown ants
Eggs Adult

Management

    • Bird perches 50/ha
    • Mechanical collection of grown up larva and blister beetle
    • Ha NPV 3 x1012 POB/ha in 0.1% teepol
    • Apply any one of the following insectcides:
    • Azadirachtin 0.03 % WSP 2500-5000 g/ha
    • Bacillus thuringiensis serovar kurstaki (3a,3b,3c) 5%WP1000-1250 g/ha
    • Dimethoate 30% EC 1237 ml/ha
    • Emamectin benzoate 5% SG 220 g/ha
    • Indoxacarb 15.8% SC 333 ml/ha
    • Chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC 150ml/ha
    • Spinosad 45%SC 125-162 ml/ha
    • NSKE 5% twice followed by triazophos 0.05%
    • Neem oil 2%
    • Phosalone 0.07%
      (Spray fluid 625 ml/ha) Note : Insecticide / Ha NPV spray
 
2. Lab lab bug or Stink bug: Coptosoma cribraria

Symptoms of damage

  • Cluster on the  plant  parts and suck the sap
Identification of the pest
  • Nymphs and Adult - sub globular, oval and greenish shield bug
  • It has a characteristic buggy odour

 
3. Bean Aphids: Aphis craccivora    

 Symptoms of damage 

  • Leaves, inflorescence stalk and young pods  covered with dark coloured aphids
  • Honey dew secretion with black ant movements

Identification of the pest

  • Nymphs and Adult – dark coloured with cornicles in the abdomen

Management
  • ETL :20/2.5 cm shoot length

Spray any one of the following :

  • Methyl demeton 25 EC 500 ml/ha
  • Dimethoate 30 EC 500 ml/ha
 
4. Leaf hopper:  Empoasca kerri

 Symptoms of damage 

  • Leave mottled and yellowish in colour
  • Green colour insects found under surface of leaves

Identification of the pest

  • Adult – elongate, active, wedge shape, green insects

 
5. Whitefly: Bemisia tabaci
Symptoms of damage
  • Leave mottled and yellowish in colour
  • vector of yellow mosaic virus

Identification of the pest

  • Adults -are small, yellow bodied insects with white wings which are densely   covered with a waxy powder.
  • Nymphs and pupae -are black and round or oval. Pupae have marginal bristles

Adult Eggs

Management of sucking pests

  • Shaking the infested plants over the vessels of oil and water or oily cloth gives most effective
  • Spray methyl demeton 25 EC 500ml or dimethoate 30 EC 500 ml or phosphomidon 85 WSC 250 ml/ha
 
6. Eriyophid mite: Aceria cajani
Symptoms of damage
  • Vector of red gram sterility  mosaic virus

Identification of the pest

  • Nymphs & Adult – white in colour
  • Very small microscopic and vermiform llike with two pairs of anteriorly  located legs  

Management of sucking pests

  • Shaking the infested plants over the vessels of oil and water or oily cloth gives most effective
  • Spray dicofol 2ml/lit or wettable sulphur 2g/lit of water
III. Leaf Feeders
1. Leaf folder: Anticarsia irrorata
Symptoms of damage
  • Leaves folded together

Identification of the pest

  • Larva- green coloured
  • Adult –   yellowish brown moth with an oblique black line on the wings
Adult Larva
 
2. Leaf Webber: Eucosma critica
Symptoms of damage
  • Leaves rolled up apically and become white  and  dried up

Identification of the pest

  • Larva- creamy yellow
 
3. Red gram leaf roller: Caloptilia soyella
Symptoms of damage
  • leaves folded together with tender shoots showing bore holes

Identification of the pest

  • Larva- stout, long, smooth yellow with brown head
 
4. Lab lab leaf miner: Cyphosticha coerulea
Symptoms of damage
  • leaves with large irregular papery mines on the dorsal surface

Identification of the pest

  • Larva- orange coloured caterpillar'

Management of leaf feeder

  • Apply Quinalphos 25 % EC 25 kg/ha
VI. Flower Feeder
1. Blister beetle: Mylabris phalerata
Symptoms of damage
  • The adult feeds voraciously on buds and flowers.

Identification of the pest

  • Eggs - are light yellowish in colour and cylindrical in shape.
  • Larva - Young grubs are white in colour.
  • Adult – Elytra are black in colour with a round orange spot and two transverse wavy   orange bands across the wings.
Adult Eggs Larva

Management

  • Manual collection or collection with insect net and killing of adults in kerosenized water appears to be the only possible solution.
 
2. Flower webber: Eublemma hemarrhoda
Symptoms of damage
  • Flower webbed together

Identification of the pest

  • Larva -is green with a black head and long white hairs on the body
  • Adult
  • Forewings – yellow colour with purple patches
  • Hind wings -white

Management

  • Spraying of 0.03% of dimethoate or the mixture of dimethoate 0.03% and Quinalphos 25% EC
Updated on Feb 24, 2014


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