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Horticultural crops :: Fruits:: Banana

  1. Panama disease:Fusarium oxysporum f.spcubense
  2. Moko disease: Pseudomonas solanacearum / Burkholderia solanacearum
  3. Tip over or Head rot: Erwinia carotovora subsp.  carovora
  4. Sigatoka disease: Mycosphaerella gloeosporioides
  5. Anthracnose: Gloeosporium gloeosporioides
  6. Freckle or Black Spot: Phyllostictina musarum
  7. Banana bunchy top: Banana bunchy top virus
  8. Infectious chlorosis :Cucumber mosaic virus

 1. Panama disease :Fusarium oxysporum f. spcubense

Symptoms

  • Yellowing of the lower most leaves starting from margin to midrib of the leaves
  • Yellowing extends upwards and finally heart leaf alone remains green for some time and it is also affected.
  • The leaves break near the base and hang down around pseudostem.
  • Longitudinal splitting of pseudostem. Discolouration of vascular vessels as red or brown streaks. 
  • The fungus spreads through use of infected rhizomes
  • Continuous cultivation results in build up of inoculum
Hanging of petiole 
Panama Wilt

Management

  • Avoid growing of susceptible cultivars viz., Rasthali, Monthan, Red banana and Virupakshi.
  • Grow resistant cultivar Poovan.
  • Since nematode predispose the disease pairing and prolinage with Carbofuran granules.
  • Corm injection of 3 ml of 2% Carbendezim injected in the corm by making a hole to a depth of 10cm with 45 0  angle on 5 th  and 7 th  month as mentioned earlier.
Infected corm
Longitudinal portion of corm

Heart Root

Heart Rot

Sigakota Leaf Spot

Sigatoka Leaf

2. Moko disease : Pseudomonas solanacearum / Burkholderia solanacearum 

Symptoms

  • Leaves become yellow and progress upwards.  The petiole breaks and leaves hang.
  • When it is cut open discolouration in vascular region  with pale yellow to dark brown colour.
  • The discolouration is in the central portion of the corm.
  • Internal rot of fruits with dark brown discoloration.
  • When the pseudostem is cut transversely bacterial ooze can be seen.

Management

  • Eradicate infected plant.
  • Expose soil to direct sunlight.
  • Use of clean planting material
  • Fallowing and crop rotation is advisable
  • Disinfection of pruning of tools.
  • Providing good drainage

3. Tip over or Heart rot: Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora

Symptoms

  • The base of the pseudostem and upper portion of the corm are affected and leads to rotting.
  • Young 1-3 month old plantation susceptible during summer months.

Management

  • Plant disease free suckers.
  • Remove infected plants and destroy
  • Drench with Methoxy ethyl mercuric chloride (Emisan-6) 0.1 / or Sodium hypohlorite 10% or Bleaching powder 20g /litre/tree.

4. Sigatoka disease : Mycosphaerella musicola (Cercospora musae)

Symptoms

  • On leaves small light yellow or brownish green narrow streaks appear.  They enlarge in size becomes linear , oblong,brown to black spots with dark brown brand and yellow halo.
  •  Black specks of fungal fruitification appear in the affected leaves.  Rapid drying and defoliation of the leaves.
   

Management

  • Removal and destruction of the affected leaves.
  • Spray Propiconazole + Carbendazim 0.1% or Chlorothalonil 0.25%. Add wetting agent such as teepol or sandovit added at the rate of 1ml/lit of water.

5. Anthracnose : Gloeosporium gloeosporioides

Symptoms :

  • The skin at the distal ends of the fingers turn black, shrivels.
  • The fungus produces masses of conidia which form a pinkish coat.
  • The entire fruit and bunch is affected in severe cases.Sometimes main stalk of bunch diseased. The bunch becomes black and rotten.
  • Acervuli produces cylindrical conidiophores, hyaline, septate, branched..Conidia hyaline, non-septate, oval to elliptical.

Management

  • Post harvest dipping of fruits in Carbendazim 400 ppm, or Benomyl 1000 ppm, or Aureofunginsol 100 ppm.

6. Freckle or Black Spot : Phyllostictina musarum

Symptoms

  • Minute raised dark brown spots appear with black dots in the centre on leaves and fruits
  • On the fruits the pathogen is confined to the skin.
  • The fungus produces pycnidium which are dark. Cconidiophores simple, short, elongate.
  • Conidia are byline, single celled ovoid.
  • Fungus survives in infected plant debris. Conidia spread by rain water and wind.

Management

  • Spray Copper oxychloride 0.25%. Add wetting agent such as teepol or sandovit added at the rate of 1ml/lit of water.

7. Banana bunchy top : Banana bunchy top virus

Symptoms

  • Subsequent leaving show the same symptoms and are dwarfed.
  • Dark broken bands of green tissues on the veins, leaves and petioles
  • Plants are extremely stunted
  • Leaves are reduced in size marginal chlorosis and curling.
  • Leaves upright and become brittle
  • Many leaves are crowded at the top.  Branches size will very small.  If infected earlier no bunch will be produced.
  • The disease is transmitted primarily by infected suckers
  • Secondary spread is through the aphid vector Pentalonia nigronervosa
Stunted growth of plants
   

Management

  • Select suckers from disease free areas.
  • Control vector by spraying methyl demoton 1 ml/l.or Monocrotophos, 2 ml/l.or Phosphomidon 1 ml / lit. or Injection of Monocrotophos 1 ml / plant (1 ml diluted in 4 ml).
  • Infected plants are destroyed using 4ml of 2, 4, D (50g in 400 ml of water).

8. Infectious chlorosis: Cucumber mosaic virus

Symptoms

  • Chlorotic or yellow linear discontinuous streaks on leaves, upward curling of leaves, twisting and bunching of leaves at the crown, erectness of newly emerged leaves.
  • Sometimes heart rot symptom also appear.
  • Diseased plants are dwarf, do not produce bunches
  • The virus spreads through infected suckers and  aphid vectors -Aphis gossypii

Cucumber Mosaic Cucumber Mosaic

Management

  • Destroy infected plants
  • Use disease free suckers
  • Control vector by spraying  systemic insecticide  0.1%

9. Banana streak virus

  • Disease severity is very variable, and probably depends on environmental conditions, as well as on host and virus genotypes.
  • The most characteristic foliar symptoms of infection are chlorotic streaks, which become necrotic with time. The leaf lamina may also be narrower, thicker and become torn.
  • Stunting of the plant, constriction of the bunch on emergence (choking), altered phyllotaxis (leaves arranged in a single vertical plane instead of the normal spiral pattern), and detachment and splitting of the outer leaf sheaths of the pseudostem.
Banana streak Virus

Control measures

  • The eradication of infected plants,
  • The use of BSV-free planting materials.
  • BSV can be carried in in vitro plantlets, as it is not eliminated by shoot-tip culture.
  • Virus particles can only be detected in areas of leaf tissue with symptoms.
  •  Parts of leaves with pronounced symptoms should be used for serological indexing.

10. Banana bract mosaic virus

Symptoms

  • The name is derived from the conspicuous discoloration and necrotic streaks that develop on the bracts of the male bud.
  • Early symptoms take the form of greenish to brownish spindle-shaped streaks irregularly scattered along leaf petioles.
  • As the disease progresses, similar discolorations become very marked on the bracts of the male inflorescence, the fruit bunch, and even on the fruits themselves.
  •  A diagnostic symptom of the disease is the spindle-shaped streaks found on the pseudostem after removal of dried leafsheaths.
  • Banana bract mosaic is caused by a flexous, filamentous virus particle that belongs to the potyvirus group.

BBMV

Control Measures

  • Effective control of the disease is similar to that of other viral diseases.
  •  It requires early detection, and immediate eradication of infected plants.
  • In establishing new banana plantings, only virus-free propagating materials should be used.

 

 


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