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Crop Improvement :: Emasculation and Pollination Techniques

EMASCULATION AND POLLINATION TECHNIQUES IN PULSES

RED GRAM (Cajanus cajan) (2n = 22) Family – Fabaceae

Self pollination is the rule in Red gram and natural crossing extents up to 65 per cent. Therefore it is also known as often cross pollinated crop.

Adaptations for self pollination: 

1. Bisexual

2. Close proximity of anthers and stigma

3.Simultaneous maturity of anthers and stigma.

Selfing, emasculation and pollination techniques in Red gram

Selfing

Mature flower buds are to be covered with paper bags for one or two days.

Crossing 

Hand emasculation followed by artifical cross pollination is essential. Emasculation should be done in the previous day evening and the emasculated buds are protected by covers. Early morning on the next day, pollination is done using pollen collected from the protected flowers of the selected male parents.

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Redgram (Selfing and Crossing Techniques) - Video Clip (Duration: 01:22 min)

BLACK GRAM (Vigna mungo) (Diploid, 2n = 22 & 24) Family – Fabaceae 

Self pollination is the rule. Here pollination occurs before floer opening(cleistogamous)in night. Anthesis time 1 am – 4 am. The flower opens in the morning at 7 am. The interval between pollination and opening of flower is 4  hours. This ensures self fertilization.

Selfing, emasculation and pollination techniques in Black gram

Selfing 

As in red gram, bagging is done to avoid insect contact.

Crossing 

Young unopened bud is kept between thumb and fore fingers of the left hand. The point of dissecting needle is inserted just under the standard petal in an oblique position along the top of the bud. The left side of the standard and wing petal are pushed outward and held with thumb and left hand. The left side of the keel petal is removed with the forceps. The pistil and stigma are then exposed and the anthers are removed with the forceps. Evening emasculation followed by morning pollination gives best results. Pollination is done by gently rubbing anther of male, inserting the staminal column and closing it with standard and wing petal. Since flower shedding is common, putting better paper bag is avoided. The emasculated flowers are identified with thread wound round. The crossed pod will be smaller in size with two or three seeds only.

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Blackgram / Greengram (Selfing and Crossing Techniques) - Video Clip (Duration: 00:18 min)

BENGAL GRAM – Cicer arietinum (2n = 14, 16)(Channa, Chick Pea)Family – Fabaceae           

Chickpea is a self pollinated species with normal out crossing limited to 1.58%. self pollination takes place one or two days before opening up of the flower. The flower open in the morning and close in the afternoon and each flower opens on tow or three successive days. Time of anthesis is 3 AM to 9 AM. For hybridization crossing work should be started when the first pod on the selected plant is already formed. In Northern India, emasculation is done a day prior to pollination. The pollination is done in the morning hours give better setting. In south India, pollination immediately after emasculation give higher seed setting.

 

SOYBEAN Glycine max (2n = 40)Family – Fabaceae          

Flower open early in the morning. The pollen is shed normally shortly before or after the flower opens. But pollen shedding may occur sometimes with in the bud itself. Normally cross pollination does not exceed 1 percent.

Emasculation and crossing

Hand emasculation is the method followed for crop breeding which is tedious since the floral parts are so small and seed set is also less. Emasculation is done in the evening and pollination is done in the morning hours.

 

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Soyabean (Emasculation and crossing Techniques) - Video Clip (Duration: 01:32 min)

COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata)Family – Fabaceae (Diploid 2n = 22 and 24)

Pollination 

Highly self pollinated because of  Cleistogamy, Close proximity of the anthers and stigma and Simultaneous maturity of anthers and stigma

Selfing 

Keeping the plants in insect proof cages will lead to selfing. Covering of individual flower buds will lead to poor pod setting.

Crossing 

Select young buds, in an inflorescence and remove all immature buds. Split open the keel petals and remove the stamens one by one holding the filaments. Bring corolla back to position and cover the bud with a folded leaflet. Protection is given by keeping the plants in insect proof cages. Pollination is done on the next day morning by exposing the stigma from the keel petal and brushing it with the pollen collected from the male parent.

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Cowpea (Selfing and Crossing Techniques) - Video Clip (Duration: 01:22 min)


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