Agriculture Engineering

Indigenous Tools

 

INDIGENOUS FARM TOOLS

INTRODUCTION
Indian farmers have been pursuing intensive as well as extensive agriculture after the green revolution in the sixties. For all farm operations, the farmers are encouraged to adopt improved machinery. Usually the agricultural machinery in India are manufactured by village artisans (including carpenter and blacksmith), tiny, units, small scale industries and organized medium and large scale industries. Traditional hand tools and bullock drawn implements are by and large fabricated by village craftsman. The organized sector has confined itself to sophisticated machinery such as tractors, engines, rice mills, oils mills, flour mills.

Tamil Nadu is also a treasure house for indigenous knowledge in agriculture and allied areas. This has been proved by innumerable indigenous knowledge available in the form of beliefs and proverbs which were also reported by literature.
Indigenous knowledge (IK) refers to the unique, traditional, local knowledge existing within and developed around the specific conditions of women and men indigenous to a particular geographic area. The development of IK systems, covering all aspects of life, including management of natural resources has been a matter of survival to the people who generated these systems. It is based on experience, often tested over centuries of use, adapted to local culture, environment and dynamics. Other names for indigenous knowledge (or closely related concepts) are 'local knowledge', 'indigenous technical knowledge', 'traditional knowledge' and 'traditional ecological' knowledge.

The survey has been conducted in the ICAR-N ATP-PSR-58 project to bring out the indigenously fabricated implements and tools used by agricultural labourers of sugarcane based production system; These tools would be a ready reckoner to know the intelligence of age old farmers. About 75 indigenous farm tools used by agricultural labourers of Erode district of Tamil Nadu in the crops viz: sugarcane, turmeric, paddy, groundnut and gingelly were documented as follows.

A.SUGARCANE

38.Chinna koodai

1. Karumbu paathi podum kalappai

39.Makkiri koodai

2. Karumbu karanai vetti

40.Manjal anda

3. Sarkkarai theikkum mutti

41. Kalai kothu

4. Sarkkarai theikkum uravarai

D. GROUNDNUT

5. Karumbu vetti

42. Kalai kothu

6. Vettarival

43. Kara chatty

7. Sammatti

44. Irumbu potti

8. Sarkkarai Sorandi

45. Saani koodai

9. Mara sorandi

46. Salladai

10. Salladai

E. GINGELLY

11. Bagotti kattai

47. Paathi podum kalappni

2. Sakkai thalli

48. Arival:

13. Saambal karandi

F. MISCELLANEOUS

14. Sakkai thallum kawai

49. Kadapparai

15. Stand

50. Ulakkai

16. Juice edukkum drum

51. Chekku

17. Sakkai parappi

52.Aattukkal

18. Sakkai vadikatti

53.Vai potti

19. Irumbu bucket

54.Thattu narukki

20. Periya kopparai

55. Irumbu muram

21. Chinna kopparai

56. Mungil muram

22. Vella achu

57. Kodari

23. Karumbu thogai vetti

58. Mammatfy kothu

B . PADDY

59. Thali

25. Katti udaikkum sammatti

60. Irumbu koduval

26. Parambadi palagai

61. Aariya kal

27. Kai palagai

62. Ammi

28. Pallu palagai

63. Kodappu

29. Koot palagai

64. Suthi

30. Karukkarival

65. Mathu

C. TURMERIC

66. Sarkkarai kachum adappu

31. Manjal oonum kothu

69. Kadai Aani

32. Irumbu kalappai

70. Padi

33. Mammatty

71. Vallam

34. Kalai kothu

72. Sorai

35. Manjal vettum kothu

73. Raathal

36. Manjal vettum kothu

74. Sallai kathi

37. Manjal vettum kothu

G.INDIGENOUS FARM TOOLS PHOTOS

A.SUGARCANE

1. Karumbu paathi podum kalappai

Local / Common Name

:

Karumbu paathi podum kalappai / Sugarcane bund former

Life and cost

:

Average life is 5 years and it costs Rs.500/unit

Dimensions

:

Shaft has a length of 375 cm. Working area is an iron blade of 60 cm height and 7 cm width. Handle is of 80cm.

Material make up

:

Shaft is made up of Acacia sp. wood and working area is made up of iron

Utility and crops

:

It is used for formation of ridges and removal of stubbles in sugarcane field.

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by male labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is a bullock drawn implement

Drudgery

:

Nil

2. Karumbu karanai vetti

Local / Common Name

:

Karumbu karanai vetti / Sugarcane sett maker

Life and cost

:

Average life is one year and its costs Rs.l0/unit

Dimensions

:

Working area has 15 cm height and 21/2 cm width. Handle is of 11 cm height and 3cm diameter

Material make up

:

Working area is made up of iron and handle is made up of Acacia sp. wood.

Utility and crops

:

This tool is used in harvesting of paddy and fodder crops and cutting of shrubs

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by both male and women labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

It tears the hands

3. Sarkkarai theikkum mutti

Local / Common Name

:

Sarkkarai theikkum mutti / Swabbing ladle

Life and cost

:

Average life is two years and it costs Rs.l20/unit

Dimensions

:

Length of handle is 15G cm Working area has a length and breadth of 20 cm x 10 cm

Material make up

:

It is made up of Acacia sp. or Albezzia lebbeck wood

Utility and crops

:

It is used for pressing the jaggery

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by only male labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Shoulder pain and hand pain

4. Sarkkarai theikkum uravarai

Local / Common Name

:

Sarkkarai theikkum uravarai / Stirrer

Life and cost

:

Average life is three years and it costs Rs.50/uni

Dimensions

:

Length of handle is 100 cm. Working area has a length and breadth of 15 cm x 10 cm

Material make up

:

It is made up of Acacia sp..wood

Utility and crops

:

It is used to churn the jaggery during jaggery preparation

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by male labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Shoulder pain and hand pain

 5. Karumbu vetti

Local / Common Name

:

Karumbu vetti / Sugarcane harvester

Life and cost

:

Average life is five years and its costs Rs.60/unit

Dimensions

:

Working area has a length and breadth of 13 cmx 6 cm. Handle is of 35 cm length and 8 cm diameter

Material make up

:

Working area is made up of iron and handle i made up of Acacia sp. wood.

Utility and crops

:

This tool is used in harvesting of sugarcane

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by male labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Hand pain

6. Vettarival

Local / Common Name

 

Vettarival / Knif

Life and cost

 

Average life is 5 years and its costs Rs.l00/unit

Dimensions

 

Working area has a length and breadth of 24 cm x 4 cm Handle is of 35 cm length and 5 cm width

Material make up

 

Working area is made up of iron and handle is made up of Acacia sp. wood.

Utility and crops

 

This tool is used in harvesting of sugarcane, cutting of shrubs and thorns

Who operates /handles?

 

It is operated by both male and women labourers

Nature of operation

 

It is operated manually

Drudgery

 

It tears the hands

7. Sammatti

Local / Common Name

 

Sammattii / Jaggery remover

Life and cost

 

Average life is four years and it costs Rs.45/unit

Dimensions

 

The basal portion has a length and breadth of 30 cm and 15 cm respectively. The handled portion has a length of 90 cm

Material make up

 

It is made up of Acacia sp. (or)
neem wood

Utility and crops

 

It is used for separating jaggery from the mould

Who operates /handles?

 

It is operated manually

Nature of operation

 

It is operated by male and women labourers

Drudgery

 

Hand pain

8. Sarkkarai Sorandi

Local / Common Name

 

Sarkkarai sorandi / Iron blade

Life and cost

 

Average life is 6 years and it costs Rs.50/unit

Dimensions

 

Working area has a length and breadth of 10 cmx 15 cm Wooden handle is of 120 cm length

Material make up

 

Handled is made up of Acacia sp. or Albezzia lebbeck wood. Working area is made up of iron blade

Utility and crops

 

It is used for collecting sugar after preparing jaggery in the boiling pen

Who operates /handles?

 

It is operated by only male labourers

Nature of operation

 

It is operated manually

Drudgery

 

Hand pain

9. Mara sorandi

Local / Common Name

:

Mara sorandi / Wooden jaggery collector

Life and cost

:

Average life is 3 years and it costs Rs.25/unit

Dimensions

:

It has a length and breadth of 40 cm x 20 cm

Material make up

:

It is made up of Acacia sp. wood

Utility and crops

:

It is used for collecting sugar after preparing jaggery in the boiling pen

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by only male labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Hand pain

10. Salladai

Local / Common Name

:

Salladai / Siever

Life and cost

:

Average life is 2 years and it costs Rs.40/unit

Dimensions

:

Working area has 40 cm diameter and handle portion is of 125 cm length

Material make up

:

It is made up of bamboo slick

Utility and crops

:

It is used for filtering of waste from the sugarcane juice

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by male labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Nil

11. Bagotti kattai

Local / Common Name

:

Bagotti kattai / Mixer

Life and cost

:

Average life is 1 year and it costs Rs.75/unit

Dimensions

:

Working area has 15 cm height and 15 cm width and the handle is of 165 cm height

Material make up

:

It is made up of neem or kadukkai wood

Utility and crops

:

It is used for mixing the boiling juice while preparing jaggery

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by only male labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Boils in hand while mixing

2. Sakkai thalli

Local / Common Name

:

Sakkai thalli / Bagasse inserter

Life and cost

:

Average life is three years and its costs Rs.lOO/unit

Dimensions

:

Iron handle is of 90 cm length and basal portion has a diameter of 10 cm

Material make up

:

Made up of iron rod

Utility and crops

:

It is used for pushing bagasse inside the chulah

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by only male labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Body heat

13. Saambal karandi

Local / Common Name

:

Saambal Karandi / Ash remover

Life and cost

:

Average life is 5 years and it costs Rs. 120/unit

Dimensions

:

Length of handle is 75 cm. working area is of 12 cm length and 10 cm breadth

Material make up

:

Working area is made up of iron

Utility and crops

:

This implement is used in local jaggery unit for pulling out the ash from source of heat

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by only male labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Body heat


14. Sakkai thallum kawai

Local / Common Name

:

Sakkai thallum kawai / Bagasse inserter

Life and cost

:

Average life is 6 years and it costs Rs.70/unit

Dimensions

:

Length of handle is 200 cm and of 2 cm diameter

Material make up

:

Made up of iron rod

Utility and crops

:

Used for pushing the bagasse inside the chulah

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by male labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Nil

15. Stand

Local / Common Name

:

Stand

Life and cost

:

Average life is two years and its costs         / Rs.60/unit

Dimensions

:

It has a height of 150 cm and breadth of 75 cm

Material make up

:

It is made up of Acacia sp. wood

Utility and crops

:

It is used to keep boiling pan during jaggery preparation

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by male labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Nil

 16. Juice edukkum drum

Local / Common Name

:

Juice edukkum drum / Juice transporter

Life and cost

:

Average life is 5 years and its costs Rs.200/unit

Dimensions

:

It has a height of 150 cm and diameter of 40 cm. Handle portion is of 120 cm length

Material make up

:

It is made up of iron

Utility and crops

:

It is used for transporting of sugarcane juice during jaggery preparation bagasse

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by male labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Hand pain

 17. Sakkai parappi

Local / Common Name

:

Sakkai parabbi / Bagasse spreader

Life and cost

:

Average life is 3 years and its costs Rs.75/unit

Dimensions

:

Working area has 10 cm circumference and handle is of 200 cm length

Material make up

:

Handle portion is made up of Acacia sp. wood and basal portion is of iron rod

Utility and crops

:

It is used for spreading sugarcane bagasse

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by male labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Hand pain

 18. Sakkai vadikatti

Local / Common Name

:

Sakkai vadikatti / Bagasse filter

Life and cost

:

Average life is four years and its costs Rs.l50/unit

Dimensions

:

Handle has a length of 250 cm. Working area has a length, breadth and depth of 65 cm x 45 cmx35 cm

Material make up

:

It is made up of Acacia sp. wood

Utility and crops

:

It is used for filtering of waste during jaggery preparation

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by male labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Hand pain

 19. Irumbu bucket

Local / Common Name

:

Irumbu bucket / Iron bucket

Life and cost

:

Average life is five years and its costs Rs.200/unit

Dimensions

:

Bucket has a height of 45cm. Diameter of base and top portion is 15 cm and 30 cm respectively. Circumference of handle portion is 40 cm

Material make up

:

It is made up of iron

Utility and crops

:

It is used for transporting of sugarcane juice

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by male labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Hand pain

 20. Periya kopparai

Local / Common Name

:

Periya Kopparai /Boiling pan

Life and cost

:

Average life is 3 years and it costs Rs.3500/unit

Dimensions

:

It has a depth of 75 cm and diameter is 225 cm

Material make up

:

It is made up of iron

Utility and crops

:

It is used for jiggery preparation

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by male labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Boy heat

21. Chinna kopparai

Local / Common Name

:

Chinna Kopparai / Pan

Life and cost

:

Average life is 3 years and it costs Rs.l500/unit

Dimensions

:

It has a depth of 50 cm and diameter is 100 cm

Material make up

:

It is made up of iron

Utility and crops

:

It is used for collecting sugarcane juice

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by male labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Nil

 22. Vella achu

Local / Common Name

:

Vella achu /jaggery mould

Life and cost

:

Average life is four years and it costs Rs.350/unit

Dimensions

:

It is of 200 cm length and 50 cm breadth. Mould is of 2 square centimeter size

Material make up

:

Made up of pongamia wood. Mould is made up of iron rod

Utility and crops

:

It is used for jaggery preparation

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by male labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Nil

 23. Karumbu thogai vetti

Local / Common Name

:

Karumbu thogai vetti / sugarcane trash cutter

Life and cost

:

Average life is 10 years and it costs Rs.250/unit

Dimensions

:

Length and breadth of basal portion if 45 cm x 10 cm Handle is of 150 cm length and 1 cm diameter. Working area has a perimeter of 40 cm

Material make up

:

Basal portion is made up of Acacia sp. wood and the handle and working area is made up of iron rod

Utility and crops

:

It is used for cutting of sugarcane trashes

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by both male and women labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Nil

Top

B. PADDY

24.Naattu kalappai

Local / Common Name

:

Naattu kalappai / country plough

Life and cost

:

Average life is 1 year and it cost Rs. 1000/unit

Dimensions

:

Body has a length and breadth of 10 cm x 5 cm. Shaft has a length of 350 cm. Share has a length of 15 cm. Handle portion is of 60 cm height

Material make up

:

It is made up of Acacia sp. wood or neem-wood or soundal wood

Utility and crops

:

It is used for primary and secondary tillage operations in all kind of soil with respect to all the crops

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by only male labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is a bullock drawn implement

Drudgery

:

Nil

 25. Katti udaikkum sammatti

Local / Common Name

:

Katti Udaikkum Sammatti / Soil clod breaker   

Life and cost

:

Average life is 4 years and it costs Rs. 150/unit

Dimensions

:

Working area has a length and breath of 15 cm 11
x 10 cm Handle is of 60 cm height

Material make up

:

It is made up of Acacia sp. or neem wood

Utility and crops

:

It is used for breaking up of clods formed in the soil

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by only male labourers
 

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Hand pain

 26. Parambadi palagai

Local / Common Name

:

Parambadi Palagai / Leveling board

Life and cost

:

Average life is 8 years and its costs Rs.l850/unit

Dimensions

:

Length of handle is 75 cm. working area has a length of 300 cm and width of 45 cm

Material make up

:

It is made up of wood

Utility and crops

:

It is used for levelling of paddy field under puddled condition.

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by only male labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is a tractor drawn implement

Drudgery

:

Nil

 27. Kai palagai

Local / Common Name

:

Kai palagai / Leveling board

Life and cost

:

Average life is 3 years and it costs Rs.300/unit

Dimensions

:

Handle has a length of 150 cm and working area has a length and breadth of 60 cm and 5 cm respectively

Material make up

:

It is made up of Acacia sp. wood

Utility and crops

:

It is used for leveling of paddy field

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by male labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Nil

28. Pallu palagai

Local / Common Name

:

Pallu palagai / Leveling board

Life and cost

:

Average life is 5 years and it costs Rs.300/unit

Dimensions

:

Handle has a length of 100 cm and working area has a length and breadth of 75 cm and 10 cm respectively

Material make up

:

It is made up of Acacia sp. wood

Utility and crops

:

It is used for leveling of paddy field

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by male labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Smoke from chulah

29. Koot palagai

Local / Common Name

:

Koot palagai / Leveling board

Life and cost

:

Average life is 2 years and it costs Rs.25Q/unit

Dimensions

:

Handle has a length of 120 cm and working area has working area has several sticks of 30 cm length and 2 cm breadth

Material make up

:

It is made up of Acacia sp. wood

Utility and crops

:

It is used for leveling of paddy field

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by male labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Smoke from chulah

  30. Karukkarival

Local / Common Name

:

Karukkarival / Sickle

Life and cost

:

Average life is five years and its costs Rs.l5/unit

Dimensions

:

Working area has 20 cm length and 3 cm width. Handle is of 15 cm height and 5 cm width

Material make up

:

Working area is made up of iron and handle is made up of Acacia sp. wood.

Utility and crops

:

Used for harvesting of paddy and fodder crops

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by both male and female labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

It tears the hands

Top

   C. TURMERIC

31. Manjal oonum kothu

Local / Common Name

:

Manjal oonum kothu / Turmeric rhizome dibbler

Life and cost

:

Average life is 5 years and it costs Rs.25/unit

Dimensions

:

Length of handle is 53 cm and diameter is 10 cm. Working area as a length of 22 cm and width of 13 cm

Material make up

:

Handle is made up of Acacia sp. wood and the  working area is made up of iron

Utility and crops

:

Used for sowing of turmeric rhizomes

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by female labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Hand pain and palm roughness

 32. Irumbu kalappai

Local / Common Name

:

Irumbu Kalappai / Iron plough

Life and cost

:

Average life is 5 years and it costs Rs.500/umt

Dimensions

:

Shaft has a length of 400 cm. Working area has a blade of 55 cm length and top and bottom width is 15 cm and 3 cm respectively. Handle is of 78 cm length and 5 cm width

Material make up

:

Shaft is made up of Acacia sp., wood and working area is made up of iron

Utility and crops

:

It is used for primary and secondary tillage operations in all kinds of soils with respect to all the crops

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by only male labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is a bullock drawn implement

Drudgery

:

Hand pain

33. Mammatty

Local / Common Name

:

Mann vetti or Mammatty / spad

Life and cost

:

Average life is 4 years and it costs Rs. 125/unit

Dimensions

:

Handle is of 50 cm length and working area has a length of 22 cm and breadth of 18 cm

Material make up

:

It is made up of Acacia sp. Wood

Utility and crops

:

It is used for formation of bunds, ridges and furrows and for irrigation practices with respect to all the crops

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by both male and women labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Palm roughness

34. Kalai kothu

Local / Common Name

:

Kalai kothu / Hand hoe

Life and cost

:

Average life is 3 years and it costs Rs.50/unit

Dimensions

:

Working area has a length of 13 cm. Top and bottom portion has a width of 7 cm and 50 cm respectively. Length of handle is 50 cm and diameter is 8 cm

Material make up

:

Handle is made up of Acacia sp. wood and the working area is made up of iron

Utility and crops

:

Used for weeding in turmeric farm

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by female labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Hand pain and palm roughness


35. Manjal vettum kothu

Local / Common Name

:

Manjal Vettum kothu / Turmeric harvester

Life and cost

:

Average life is 4 years and it costs Rs. 100/unit  

Dimensions

:

Length of handle is 85 cm and diameter is 10 cm.

Material make up

:

Working area has a length of 20 cm and width of 14 cm

Utility and crops

:

Handle is made up of Acacia sp. wood and working area is made up of iron

Who operates /handles?

:

Used for harvesting of turmeric rhizomes

Nature of operation

:

It is operated by female labourers

Drudgery

:

It is operated manually Hand pain

 36. Manjal vettum kothu

Local / Common Name

:

Manjal Vettum kothu / Turmeric harvester

Life and cost

:

Average life is 6 years and it costs Rs. 125/unit

Dimensions

:

Length of handle is 80 cm and diameter is .11 cm. Working areas at each side as a length of 25 cm; bottom width is 13 cm and top width is 8 cm

Material make up

:

Handle is made up of Acacia sp. wood and working area is made up of iron

Utility and crops

:

Used for harvesting of turmeric rhizomes and removal of sugarcane stubbles

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by male labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Hand pain

37. Manjal vettum kothu

Local / Common Name

:

Manjal Vettum kothu / Turmeric harvester

Life and cost

:

Average life is 4 years and it costs Rs.l50/unit

Dimensions

:

Length and diameter of handle is 70 cm and 50 cm respectively. Working area has a length of 20 cm and width of 7 cm

Material make up

:

Handle is made up of Acacia sp. wood and working area is made up of iron

Utility and crops

:

Used for digging out of turmeric rhizomes

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by male labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Hand pain

 38.Chinna koodai

Local / Common Name

:

Chinna Koodai / Small basket

Life and cost

:

Average life is 2 years and it costs Rs.50/untt

Dimensions

:

Depth is 24 cm; diameter of the top and bottom portion is 40 cm and 22 cm respectively

Material make up

:

It is made up of bamboo stick

Utility and crops

:

It is used for collection of harvested turmeric rhizomes in the field

Who operates /handles?

:

It is handled by female labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Nil

  39.Makkiri koodai

Local / Common Name

:

Makkiri Koodai / big basket

Life and cost

:

Average life is 2 years and it costs Rs.80/unit

Dimensions

:

Depth is 30 cm; diameter of the top and bottom portion is 54 cm and 30 cm respectively

Material make up

:

It is made up of bamboo

Utility and crops

:

It is used for transporting of turmeric rhizomes from field to home

Who operates /handles?

:

It is handled by female labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Nil

 40.Manjal anda

Local / Common Name

:

Manjal anda / Turmeric boiler

Life and cost

:

Average life is 2 years and it costs Rs.750/unit

Dimensions

:

The pan has a length and breadth of 97 cm and 62 cm and depth of 30 cm It has 4 handles with length and breadth of 20 cm and 10 cm respectively

Material make up

:

It is made up of iron sheets

Utility and crops

:

It is used for the process of boiling of turmeric and parboiling of paddy

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by male labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Body heat

 41. Kalai kothu

Local / Common Name

:

Kalai kothu / Hand hoe

Life and cost

:

Average life is 3 years and it costs Rs.30/unit

Dimensions

:

Working area has a length and breadth of 15 cm and 5 cm respectively. Length of handle is 50cm

Material make up

:

Handle is made up of Acacia sp. wood and the working area is made up of iron

Utility and crops

:

Used for weeding in turmeric farm

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by female labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Hand pain, palm roughness

Top

D. GROUNDNUT

42. Kalai kothu

Local / Common Name

:

Kalai kothu / Hand hoe

Life and cost

:

Average life is 3 years and it costs Rs.30/unit

Dimensions

:

Working area has a length and breadth of 15 cm and 5 cm respectively. Length of handle is 50cm

Material make up

:

Handle is made up of Acacia sp. wood and the working area is made up of iron

Utility and crops

:

Used for weeding in turmeric farm

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by female labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Hand pain, palm roughness

  43. Kara chatty

Local / Common Name

:

Kara chatti / Iron basket

Life and cost

:

Average life is 6 years and it costs Rs.50/unit

Dimensions

:

It has a depth of 35 cm and diameter of 5 cm   

Material make up

:

It is made up of iron sheets

Utility and crops

:

It is used for harvesting and keeping of ground nut pods and for application of manures

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by male and women labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Nil

  44. Irumbu potti

Local / Common Name

:

Irurribu potti / Iron basket

Life and cost

:

Average life is 5 years and it costs Rs.80/unit

Dimensions

:

It has 15 cm diameter and 30 cm depth

Material make up

:

It is made up of iron sheet

Utility and crops

:

It is used for collection of groundnut pods during harvesting

Who operates /handles?

:

It is handled by women labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Nil

 45. Saani koodai

Local / Common Name

:

Saani Koodai / cowdung basket

Life and cost

:

Average life is 4 years and it costs Rs.30/unit

Dimensions

:

It has a diameter and depth of 40 cm and 10 cm respectively

Material make up

:

It is made up of bamboo

Utility and crops

:

It is used for collection of groundnut pods and cowdung

Who operates /handles?

:

It is handled by both male and female labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Nil

46. Salladai

 Local / Common Name

:

Salladai / Ground nut grader

Life and cost

:

Average life is 2 years and it costs Rs.50/unit

Dimensions

:

It has a length of 75 cm and breadth of 40 cm

Material make up

:

It is made up of mud

Utility and crops

:

It is used for grading of groundnut seeds

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by women labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Hand pain

Top

 E. GINGELLY

47. Paathi podum kalappni

Local / Common Name

:

Paathi podum Kalappai / Bund former

Life and cost

:

Average life is 8 years and it costs Rs.500/unit

Dimensions

:

Shaft has a length of 400 cm. Working area has 2 blades each of 75 cm length and 20 cm width. Handle is of 60 cm length and 40 cm width

Material make up

:

Shaft is made up of Acacia sp. wood and working area is made up of iron

Utility and crops

:

It is used for formation of beds in maize, gingelly and groundnut farm.

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by only male labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is a bullock drawn implement

Drudgery

:

Nil

48. Arival:

Local / Common Name

:

Arival / Sickle

Life and cost

:

Average life is 2 years and its costs Rs. 10/unit

Dimensions

:

Working area has a curved surface of 25 cm. and length of handle is 7 cm

Material make up

:

Working area is made up of iron and handle is made up of Acacia sp. wood.

Utility and crops

:

It is used for harvesting of gingelly

Who operates /handles?

:

Operated by women labourers

Nature of operation

:

Operated manually

Drudgery

:

Working area has to be sharpened frequently

Top

F MISCELLANEOUS

49. Kadapparai

Local / Common Name

:

Kadapparai / Crow bar

Life and cost

:

Average life is 15 years and it costs Rs.200/unit

Dimensions

:

It has a length of 45 cm; diameter of bottom and top portion is 8 cm and 5 cm respectively

Material make up

:

It is made up of iron rod

Utility and crops

:

It is used to dig out pits for planting of tree plants

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by male members

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Hand pain and palm roughness

  50. Ulakkai

Local / Common Name

:

Ulakkai / milling tool

Life and cost

:

Average life is 10 years and it costs Rs.200/unit

Dimensions

:

It has a length of 142 cm and diameter of 15 cm

Material make up

:

It is made up of neem wood, soundal wood, jack wood or teak wood

Utility and crops

:

It is used for the process of milling of cereals

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by women labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Hand pain and palm roughness

 51. Chekku

Local / Common Name

:

Chekku / Grinder

Life and cost

:

Average life is 10 years and it costs Rs.60/unit

Dimensions

:

It has a height of 140 cm and diameter of working area is 15 cm

Material make up

:

It is made up of stone

Utility and crops

:

It is used for the process of milling of all kinds of cereals

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by women labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Hand pain

52.Aattukkal

Local / Common Name

:

Aattukkal / Grinder

Life and cost

:

Average life is 10 years and it costs Rs.60/unit

Dimensions

:

It has a height of 60 cm and breadth is 48 cm. Depth and diameter of working area is 15 cm and 22 cm respectively kulavi has a length of 27 cm; diameter of top and bottom portion is 50 cm and 42 cm respectively. Length and diameter of handle is 10 cm and 5 cm respectively

Material make up

:

It is made up of stone

Utility and crops

:

Used for grinding of rice, cotton seeds etc

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by women labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Hand pain

 53.Vai potti

Local / Common Name

:

Vai potti / Mouth cover

Life and cost

:

Life and cost Average life is 2 years and it costs Rs.50/unit      

Dimensions

:

It has a depth of 15 cm and diameter of top and bottom portion is 15 cm and 8 cm respectively

Material make up

:

It is made up of coir

Utility and crops

:

It is used for tieing the mouth of animals to prevent grazing

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by male labourers

Nature of operation

:

Manual

Drudgery

:

Nil

 54.Thattu narukki

Local / Common Name

:

Thattu Narukki / Sorghum stalk cutter

Life and cost

:

Average life is 80 years and its costs Rs.200/unit

Dimensions

:

Basal portion is of 100 cm length and 15 cm breath. Working area has a length of 40 cm x 5 cm.

Material make up

:

It is made up of iron

Utility and crops

:

It is used for cutting of sorghum stalks, fodder crops etc.,

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by male labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Hand pain

 55. Irumbu muram

Local / Common Name

:

Irumbu muram / Winnower

Life and cost

:

Average life is 2 years and it costs Rs.30/unit

Dimensions

:

It has a length, breadth and depth of 40 cm x 30 cmx 3 cm

Material make up

:

It is made up of iron

Utility and crops

:

It is used for collecting and keeping up of pulses and oilseeds

Who operates /handles?

:

It is used mostly by female labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Hand pain

 56. Mungil muram

Local / Common Name

:

Mungil muram /Winnower

Life and cost

:

Average life is 2 years and it costs Rs.50/unit

Dimensions

:

It has a length, breadth and depth of 35 cm x 25 cm x 3 cm

Material make up

:

It is made up of bamboo stick

Utility and crops

:

It is used for cleaning and winnowing of pulses and oilseeds

Who operates /handles?

:

It is used mostly by female labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Hand pain

 57. Kodari

Local / Common Name

:

Kodari/Pick axe

Life and cost

:

Average life is 7 years and it costs Rs.75/unit

Dimensions

:

Length of handle is 65 cm and working area has a length of 40 cm and width of 5 cm

Material make up

:

Handle is made up of wood and working area is made up of iron

Utility and crops

:

It is used for cutting of fire wood and to up root basal wood portion of plants

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by male labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Hand pain

 58. Mammatfy kothu

Local / Common Name

:

Mammatty Kothu / Hand hoe

Life and cost

:

Average life is 5 years and it costs Rs.30/unit

Dimensions

:

Length of handle is 55 cm and working area has a length of 5 cm and width of 10 cm

Material make up

:

Handle is made up of Acacia sp. wood and the blade is made up of iron

Utility and crops

:

It is used for weeding operation in cotton and tapioca farm

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by women labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Hand pain and palm roughness

 59. Thali

Local / Common Name

:

Thali / Water keeping pan

Life and cost

:

Average life is 8 years and it costs Rs.80/unit

Dimensions

:

It has a depth of 60 cm Diameter of top and bottom portion is 50 cm and 25 cm respectively

Material make up

:

It is made up of cement mixtures

Utility and crops

:

It is also used for keeping water for cattle.

Who operates /handles?

:

It is handled by women labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Nil

  60. Irumbu koduval

Local / Common Name

:

Vettarival / Iron knife

Life and cost

:

Average life is 6 years and its costs Rs. 100/unit

Dimensions

:

Handle has a length of 10cm. Working area has a curved surface of 30 cm

Material make up

:

It is made up of iron and handle

Utility and crops

:

It is used for harvesting of sorghum, forage crops and cutting of shrubs, thorns and other plants.

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by male labourers

Nature of operation

:

Operated manually

Drudgery

:

Working area has to be sharpened frequently

  61. Aariya kal

Local / Common Name

:

Aariya kal / Ragi milling tool

Life and cost

:

Average life is 15 years and it coses Rs. 400/ unit

Dimensions

:

Basal portion has a height of 10 cm and diameter of 40 cm. Top

Material make up

:

It is made up of stone

Utility and crops

:

It is used for milling

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by women laboures

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Nil

 62. Ammi

Local / Common Name

:

Ammi / Milling tool

Life and cost

:

Average life is 15 years and it costs Rs.l50/unit

Dimensions

:

30 cm x 20 cm x 15 cm of length, breadth and height

Material make up

:

It is made up of stone

Utility and crops

:

It is used for grinding of small quantity of dhals

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by women labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Nil

63. Kodappu

Local / Common Name

:

Kodappu / Basket

Life and cost

:

Average life is Syears ami it costs Rs. 150/unit

Dimensions

:

It is of 110 cm diameter and 100 cm height

Material make up

:

It is made up of bamboo

Utility and crops

:

It is used for protecting young ones of goat and poultry from snakes, dogs and jackals

Who operates /handles?

:

It is handled by both women labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Nil

 64. Suthi

Local / Common Name

:

Suthi / Hammer

Life and cost

:

Average life is 8 years and it costs Rs.50/unit

Dimensions

:

Length of handle is 30 cm. Length and diameter of working area is 10 cm and 3 cm respectively

Material make up

:

Handle is made up of Acacia sp. wood or pongamia wood or Albezzia lebbeck wood

Utility and crops

:

It is used for separation of seeds from tamarind

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by women labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Hand pain

 65. Mathu

Local / Common Name

:

Mathu / Butter separator

Life and cost

:

Average life is 1.0 years and it costs Rs.50/unit

Dimensions

:

It has a length of 60 cm and basal portion has a diameter of 10 cm

Material make up

:

It is made up of Albezzia lebbeck wood

Utility and crops

:

It is used for separation of butter from curds

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by women labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Hand pain

 66. Sarkkarai kachum adappu

Local / Common Name

:

Sarkkarai kachum adappu / Jaggery making chulah

Life and cost

:

Average life is 3 years and it costs Rs.200/unit

Dimensions

:

It has a diameter of 230 cm

Material make up

:

It is made up of mud

Utility and crops

:

It is used for jaggery preparation

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by male labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Smoke from chulah

69. Kadai Aani

Local / Common Name

:

Kadai Aani

Life and cost

:

Average life is 4 years and it costs Rs.50/unit

Dimensions

:

It has a length of 75 cm

Material make up

:

It is made up of iron rod

Utility and crops

:

It is used for managing the stress from the wheels of bullock card

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by male labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Nil

 70. Padi

Local / Common Name

:

Padi / Measuring tool

Life and cost

:

Average life is 20 years and it costs Rs.25/unit

Dimensions

:

It has a length of 14 cm and diameter of 9 cm

Material make up

:

It is made up of iron

Utility and crops

:

It is used for measuring of cereals, pulses and oil seeds. It can measure a weight of % kg

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by male and women labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Nil

 71. Vallam

Local / Common Name

:

Vallam/ Measuring tool

Life and cost

:

Average life is 20 years and it costs   Rs.100/unit

Dimensions

:

It has a length of 20 cm and diameter of 18 cm

Material make up

:

It is made up of iron

Utility and crops

:

It is used for measuring of cereals, pulses and oil seeds. It can measure a weight of 3 kg

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by male and women labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Nil

72. Sorai

Local / Common Name

:

Sorai / funnel

Life and cost

:

Average life is 3 years and it costs Rs.25/unit

Dimensions

:

It has a width of 26 cm

Material make up

:

It is made up of plastic

Utility and crops

:

It is used for pouring of pesticide into the sprayer

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by male labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Nil

 73. Raathal

Local / Common Name

:

Raathal / Measuring tool

Life and cost

:

Average life is 10 years and it costs Rs.300/unit

Dimensions

:

It has a length of 36 cm and width of 4 cm

Material make up

:

It is made up of iron

Utility and crops

:

It is used for weighing of produles

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by male labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Nil

74. Sallai kathi

Local / Common Name

:

Sallai kathi / Harvester

Life and cost

:

Average life is 8 years and it costs Rs.30/unit

Dimensions

:

Length of bamboo stick is 200 cm and the working area is an iron knife having a curved surface of 10 cm

Material make up

:

It is made up of iron

Utility and crops

:

It is used for harvesting of fruits, drum stick

Who operates /handles?

:

It is operated by male labourers

Nature of operation

:

It is operated manually

Drudgery

:

Nil

Top

G.INDIGENOUS FARM TOOLS PHOTOS

Top

Authors

Dr.C.Karthikeyan
Dr.J.Venkata Pirabu
Mrs.S.Amudha
Mrs.G.Selvarani
Dr.R.Netaji Seetharaman

 Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Sociology
Centre for Agricultural and Rural Development Studies
Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
Coimbatore-641 003.

Top

 

 
| Home | Schemes | Subsidy | Indigenous Tools | Imported Machineries | Custom Hiring | Training | Manufacturers | Dealers | Gallery | FAQs & Queries | Contact |
© All Rights Reserved. TNAU-2008.