Seed Village

Seed Village Guidelines


Seed is the starting point of agriculture and dictates ultimate productivity of other inputs. Good quality seed alone increases the yield by 15-20 per cent. To meet the potential challenge of catering to the food need of 1.4 billion people of our country by 2025, a quantum increase in agricultural productivity is very much essential and hence production and distribution of high quality seeds of improved varieties/ hybrids to the fanning community is becoming increasingly important. The expansion of agriculture under tropical conditions due to the improvement of cultivars with juvenile period imposed a scientific and technological challenges concerning the seed production under different environmental conditions.

The seed programme includes the participation of state government, SAU system, public sector, cooperative and private sector institutions. With the best efforts of all these organized sectors, only 15-20 per cent of the total requirement of quality seed is being met with. In most, kind of seeds, the farmers depend on their own farm saved seeds for crop production which needs certain basic practices of selection of good seeds for sowing. Moreover the crops are raised for market and a small portion of the grains are separated, stored and used as seeds in the next season which may not meet the quality aspects as expected for a seed which results in poor field stand, and ultimately yield.
Quality seed is the key input for realizing potential productivity. As the quality deteriorates during subsequent generations the old seed must be replaced with fresh lots of quality seeds. Ideally seed should be replaced every year for hybrids and every three to four years for non-hybrids. Therefore it is necessary to improve the availability of quality seeds to raise the Seed Replacement Rate (SRR).
Despite implementation of the organized seed programme, the seed replacement rate has only reached 15 per cent and there exists an alarming gap between the demand and supply of quality seeds. The role of private seed industry in the production and distribution of quality seeds is well recognized in the Indian' seed industry. However, they remain generally in the production of low volume high value seeds, which the needs of only few selected farmers.         .

The distribution of high volume low value seeds such as rice varieties, oil seeds and pulses are still with the public sector organization. The non-availability of quality seeds in oilseeds and pulses is one of the main reasons for its lower seed replacement rate. The immediate increase in the productivity and production of these corps can be achieved by a higher distribution of quality seeds of new and high yielding varieties.
There is vast scope to produce and distribute quality seeds in these corps for which seed village concept is a noval and highly practical approach and needs to be promoted to facilitate production and timely distribution of quality seeds of desired varieties at village level. In this context, the concept of seed village which advocates village self-sufficiency in production and distribution of quality seeds is getting momentum.

What is seed village?

A village, wherein trained group of fanners are involved in production 'of seeds of various crops and cater to the needs of themselves, fellow fanners of the village and fanners of neighboring villages in appropriate time and at affordable cost is called "a seed village".


  • Organizing seed production in cluster (or) compact area

  • Replacing existing local varieties with new high yielding varieties.

  • Increasing the seed production

  • To meet the local demand, timely supply and reasonable cost

  • Self sufficiency and self reliance of the village

  • Increasing the seed replacement rate


  • Seed is available at the door steps of farms at an appropriate time

  • Seed availability at affordable cost even lesser than market price                  

  • Increased confidence among the farmers about the quality because of known source of production

  • Producer and consumer are mutually benefited

  • Facilitates fast spread of new cultivars of different kinds

Establishment of seed villages

The present programme of seed village scheme is having two phases           

I. Seed production of different crops

Seed village concept is to promote the quality seed production of foundation and certified seed classes. The area which is suitable for raising a particular crop will be selected, and raised with single variety of a kind.

Selection of area

The area with the following facilities will be selected.
1. Irrigation facilities
2. Suitability of climatic conditions to raise the crop for more than one season 3.   Labour availability
4. Knowledge of local farmers on that particular crop
5. Occurrence or out break of pest and diseases
6. Past history of the area for suitability to raise seed crop
7. Average rainfall and distribution
8. Closeness to a urban area for easy movement of seed and other inputs

Seed Supply

Suitable area for seed production will be identified by the Scientists. The foundation/ certified seeds or University labeled seeds will be supplied by the University through Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs) and Research Stations at 50% subsidy cost to the identified farmers in the area. The farmers will use these quality seeds and take up their own seed production in a small area (1 acre) for their own use. The crops are Rice, Pulses and Oilseeds.

Capacity building

In orderto harness the synergy between technologies and the community participation, special emphasis is being given to build farmer's capacity to produce quality seeds. A training on seed production and seed technology to the identified farmers for the seed crops grown in the seed villages will be given for technology empowerment of farmers.

Duration of the training : 3 days                                               
First one day training : At the time of sowin
Training on   : Isolation distance, sowing practices, seed  treatment, and other agronomic practices.
Second one day training   : During flowering
Training on : Identifying offtypes and removal, maintenance of seed plots, plant protection measures, maturity status and harvesting methods.
Third one day training  : After harvest
Training on  : Seed cleaning, grading, seed treating, bagging and storage aspects, seed sampling and sending to seed testing laboratory for analysis.

A seed grower forum will be organized for further empowerment of technology and marketing. .

Seed village programme in Tamil Nadu         

In order to promote quality seeds for improving production and productivity, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University is implementing Seed Village Scheme for Development and Strengthening of Seed Infrastructure facilities for production and distribution of quality seeds through three Research Stations and 13 Krishi Yigyan Kendras of TNAU with financial support of Government of India.

 II. Establishing seed processing unit

Post-harvest seed handling is a vital component of the total technology in marketing available good quality seeds of improved varieties. If the seeds arenot processed and handled properly, all the past efforts in production may be lost. Thus seed processing and packaging is very important aspect in seed production..! The location of seed processing centers is based on the available infrastructure and convenience. Such a place will be well connected with roads and transportation facilities. Each seed processing center will have the following infrastructure.  .

  • Seed garden cum clearer

  • Bag closer, trolleys, scales and furniture

  • Building to house equipment

  • Seed storage structure

  • Seed threshing and drying yard

  • Information center

         The information center will have internet facility to provide access to information on seed demand and market trends, agriculture market index, weather forecast, plant protection measures etc.,

 Advantages of Seed Village Concept or Compact Area Approach

1. Solve the problem of isolation. Mainly in cross pollinated crops like maize, sunflower where it required more Isolation distance the problem will be solved by raising a single variety in a large area.      
2. Mechanization is possible from sowing to harvesting
3.   Post harvest handling of seed is easy                                                     .
4. Because of a single variety, the problem of varietal admixture during processing, drying will be avoided
5. Seed certification official will cover large area per unit time
6. Totally it reduces the cost of cultivation
7. Seed will be with high genetic, physical purity

Source: Training manual on Capacity building of extension functionaries under part – II plan

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