Seed :: Oil Seeds :: Gingelly

QUALITY SEED PRODUCTION IN GINGELLY

Land preparation
           
Land selection for seed production is particularly important because it governs seed germination, seedling vigour, nutrient mobilization in the soil, soil moisture conservation etc., alluvial soil mixed with red soil and clayey soil is most suitable for gingelly cultivation. Depending on the soil characteristics, the soil with proper moisture content should be ploughed well to make it soft friable.

Sowing season
           
The growth of gingelly plant and fruiting potential vary very much with regard to temperature and photoperiod when the flowering period is hindered by heavy rains, anthesis is greatly affected leading to reduction in yield. In the early stage also heavy rains will reduce the crop growth. Continous cloudy sky will increase the pest attack on gingelly pods. All these factors underscore the necessity to take seed sowing in the proper season.
           
Although gingelly is cultivated under dry farming conditions, cultivation under irrigated condition will help to increase the seed yield. For seed production January – February and May – June are the most suitable seasons for sowing the seeds.

Seed production field

Isolation distance
           
Gingelly is a self-pollinated crop. The land selected for seed production should be free from volunteer plants of gingelly. Also the land should not have been used for gingelly cultivation in the previous season. The land should be isolated from other gingelly varieties by 50 m for certified seed production and 100 m for foundation seed production. Gingelly seed production should not be taken up in areas where the insect activity is high since this may facilitate cross pollination resulting in reduction in genetic purity of the seed.

What are volunteer plants?

Volunteers are plants that grow in the field from the seeds found in the soil. These seeds should have been fallen from previous season crop. Since they grow without sowing or they volunteer to grow by themselves, hence the name volunteer plants

Seed requirement
           
For all varieties the seed rate of 2 kg / acre is sufficient,

Seed Treatment
           
Gingelly seeds should be treated before sowing. The seeds selected should be well developed, bold without any pest or disease infestation and should not be contaminated with other varieties. 

Fungicide seed treatment

  1. It is important to prevent seed as well as soil transmitted diseases.
  2. With every kilogram of seeds, 2 g Carbendazim or 4 g of Trichoderma viridi dry fungus should be mixed well.
  3. Seeds should be treated 24 hrs before sowing.

Biological seed treatment

  1. After fungicides seed treatment, the seeds can be treated with Azospirillum.
  2. Biological seed treatment helps the plants to get nitrogen naturally.
  3. For an acre, one packet(200gm) each of Azospirillum and phosphobacterium is mixed with 500 ml of rice gruel and then it is mixed with 2 kg of seeds – The trated seeds are dried well under shade.
  4. The treated seeds are to be sown within 24 hrs of seed treatment.

Fertilizer application
           
After ploughing the land to get pulverized soil, 5 tonnes of decomposed farm yard manure should be applied for one acre. This should be done one week before sowing and incorporated into the soil. During the final Ploughing, 20:10:10 kg of nitrogen, phosphorus and potash should be applied by using the following chemical fertilizers.

Nitrogen

Phosphorus

Potash

20 kg

10 kg

10 kg

Urea 44 kg

Super phosphate 60 Kg

Potash 16 kg

Along with the above fertilizers if 2 Kg of Manganese sulphate is applied, higher yield will be obtained.

Foliar fertilization
           
In order to get well developed pods and higher yield, DAP should be sprayed. 2.5 Kg of DAP is dissolved in 10 litres of water and allowed over night. Later the supernatant should be mixed with 190 litres of water to make a total quantity of 200 litres and sprayed with hand sprayer during the evenings.

Attention
    
The spraying is to be done during flowering period and repeated once after 10 days.

Seed sowing
           
Gingelly seeds should be mixed with sand and evenly broadcasted. Line sowing is highly advantageous. Seed should not be dibbled more than 3 cm depth while sowing.

Spacing

30 cm spacing is recommended between the rows as well a plants within the row so as to obtain 11 plants per square meter.

Thinning  
           
Fifteen days after sowing leaving behind one vigorous seedling, rest of the seedlings should be thinned. While thinning the field should have enough moisture. Thinning is one of the important cultural practices as far as gingelly is concerned.

Irrigation Management
           
The field should be irrigated immediately and after three days of sowing (life irrigation). Later irrigation should be given at 10-15 days interval depending upon the soil moisture. Irrigation is especially important during the flowering and pod filling stages.

Weed Management
           
Weed management is an important cultural practice as far as seed production is concerned. After 15 and 30 days of sowing, weeding should be done and field should be hoed. Twenty days after sowing 50 ml of Alachlor (herbicide) should be mixed with 200 liter of water and sprayed on the soil using the hand sprayer during the evening. Irrigation should be done immediately.

Roguing
           
The plants should be examined during the vegetative stage, flowering, fruiting and pod maturation stages in order to identify and remove the rogues and offtypes to avoid genetic contamination.

What is offtypes?
      
Plant or seed deviating significantly from the characteristics of a variety as described by the breeder in any observed respect.

Plants which are lean and lanky and those which are very tall compared to the variety under cultivation should be removed. During the flowering and fruiting stages, plants should be examined thoroughly for the varietal characteristics pertaining to the stem, leaf flower, etc., with respect to their colour and shape so as to clearly identify the contaminants for further removal.   
           
In quality seed production, removal of contaminants is an important operation. Therefore, the removal of contaminants should be done at the proper time to produce quality seeds with high genetic purity.

Plant Protection

Pests

Sucking pest
          
The insect such as jassids, aphids etc., such the sap of the plants and the plants wither. In order to control this pest Dimethoate 300 ml (or) Methyl demotion 250 ml can be sprayed.

Pod borer

Pod borer infestation
           
When the crop is at vegetative stage, this pest knit the leaves closely and feed on the flowers, young pods and tender shoots by remaining inside. In order to control this pest, one of the following insecticides should be sprayed during 25/35 and 50th day.Quinalphos25 EC 400 ms / acre (or) or phasalone 35 EC 400 ml/acre (or) Phasalone 35 EC 400 (or) Qunalphos 25 EC 400 ml. At reproductive stage it act as the pod borers and cause high levels of crop damage during harvest stage. To control  them, Quinalphos 25% dust can be applied @ 10 Kg/acre 10-15 days before harvest (or) Quinailphos 25 EC @ 400 ml (or) Chlorpyriphos 1.5% DP @ 400 ml  can be sprayed.
           
After harvesting, the plants are to be stacked on the floor dusted with Chlorpyriphos dust as an important measure to control this pest.

Diseases

Leaf spot
           
The leaves of the plants affected by this disease will have dark brown spots on the top surface of the leaves. Later these spots will merge leading to leaf drying. To prevent this disease, Bavisin @ 100 g/acre should be sprayed by mixing with 200 ml of water. That is for every litre of water half gram of Bavistin should be added to prepare the spray solution. Otherwise Mancozeb 400 g / acre can be sprayed @ 2 g per lit.

Powdery mildew
           
The upper surface of the leaves show white powdery growth of the fungus. Such leaves shrink, shrivel and fall away. To control this disease the Wettable sulphur 1 kg/ acre (5 g / litre of water) should be sprayed well on the plants.

Phyllody
           
The flowers of the diseased plants become leaf like structure. The disease is due to a king of virus. The affected plants should be removed from the field. The disease is transmitted by leaf hopper. Monocrophos @ 300 ml/ acre is recommended to control the spread of this disease.

Symptoms of Phyllody

Harvesting and storage

Seed harvest
           
For quality seed production, it is important that the crop is harvested in the right stage of maturity. When the seeds are ready for harvest, most of the leaves fall down and most of the pods (75-80 per cent) turn yellow in colour. Stem becomes brown in colour, in the plants one or more bottom pods that has dried first start shattering the seeds. Seed turn chocolate brown in colour The pod moisture content will be around  40-50 per cent and seed  moisture content will be 25-30 per cent. Before the lower portion turn brown, the pods should be harvested otherwise there will be heavy shattering that lead to loss in seed yield.

Seed separation
           
The harvested plants should be stacked in the thrashing floor in a circle in such a way that the terminal portion remains down and root portion is up and allowed to dry under the sun. As the plants dry the pods will burst and shed the seeds. The pods that still do not burst should be gently thrashed with pliable bamboo sticks to separate the seeds from pods.

Seed grading
           
The separated seeds should be cleaned by winnowing or using air screen cleaner. Seeds thus cleaned should be upgraded using BSS 14 x 14 square sieves or 4/64" round perforated sieves. Seeds should be dried to 6-7 per cent moisture content before storage.

Seed storage
           
Seed can be stored in new gada cloth bags upto 9 months after treating the seeds with Captan 2 g/kg of seeds or 75% WP mixed with 5 ml of water. The seeds can be stored in moisture resistant polythene bags, tins or aluminium foil bags or plastic containers for one year.

Seed certification standards

Field Standard

 

 

 

Foundation

Certified

Off types

0.10

0.20

Infected plants by seed borne disease  (Alternaria leaf spot)

0.50

1.00

Seed standard

 

 

 

Foundation

Certified

Pure seed (minimum)

97%

97%

Inert matter (max)

3%

3%

Other crop seed (max)

10/kg

20/kg

Weed seed (max)

10/kg

20/kg

Other varieties (max)

10/kg

20/kg

Germination (mini)

80%

80%

Moisture content (max)

 

 

Moisture pervious container

9%

9%

Vapour proof container

5%

5%

Varietal characters

Characterized

CO 1

TMV 3

TMV 4

TMV 6

SVPR 1

Parentage

TMV 3 x sl. 1878

Local var. of south Arcot x Malabar

Selection from sattur local

Selection from Andra local

Selection from local

Duration (day)

85-90

80

80-85

Tall growth

75-80

Plant growth

Branches with narrow internodes

More Branches Bushy types

-

80-130

Closer

Plant height (cm)

120-130

60-90

95-110

4-6

90-100

Branches

4-8

-

6

Green

-

Stem

Narrow internodes

Pink at Basal

Green 5 internodes upto 1st pod

-

Pale green pods dense at stem and branches

Leaves

Dark green

Dark green lower leaves 3
lobed

-

One flower at each leaf axil light pink petals

Dark green with one shallow leaf serration

Flowers

-

Moderate Bell shaped
pink at
margin of
petals

-

Pod with four locules one at each leaf axil

Pumple white flower

Pods

Bigger, one at each leaf axil, four locules, uniform maturity

Four locules

Slightly purple four locules, 60-80 pods pointed tips

Purple

Bigger green cluster four locules

Seed

Dark brown to black

Dark brown to black

Pale purple

-

Bigger, white

1000 seed weight (g)

3.30

-

-

 

3.42

 
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