Organic Farming :: Organic Inputs and Techniques

Panchakavya


1. Panchakavya

Panchagavya, an organic product has the potential to play the role of promoting growth and providing immunity in plant system. Panchagavya consists of nine products viz. cow dung, cow urine, milk, curd, jaggery, ghee, banana, Tender coconut and water. When suitably mixed and used, these have miraculous effects.

  • Cow dung - 7 kg
  • Cow ghee - 1 kg

Mix the above two ingredients thoroughly both in morning and evening hours and keep it for 3 days

  • Cow Urine - 10 liters
  • Water - 10 liters

After 3 days mix cow urine and water and keep it for 15 days with regular mixing both in morning and evening hours. After 15 days mix the following and panchagavya will be ready after 30 days.

  • Cow milk - 3 liters
  • Cow curd - 2 liters
  • Tender coconut water - 3 liters
  • Jaggery - 3 kg
  • Well ripened poovan banana – 12 nos.

2. Preparation 

All the above items can be added to a wide mouthed mud pot, concrete tank or plastic can as per the above order. The container should be kept open under shade. The content is to be stirred twice a day both in morning and evening. The Panchagavya stock solution will be ready after 30 days. (Care should be taken not to mix buffalo products. The products of local breeds of cow is said to have potency than exotic breeds). It should be kept in the shade and covered with a wire mesh or plastic mosquito net to prevent houseflies from laying eggs and the formation of maggots in the solution. If sugarcane juice is not available add 500 g of jaggery dissolved in 3 liter of water.

Ingredients of Panchakavya
Cow dung Cow urine Cow ghee Milk Water
Cow curd Jaggery Tender Coconut Well ripened
poovan banana

Physico chemical and biological properties of Panchagavya

Chemical composition
pH : 5.45
EC dSm2 : 10.22
Total N (ppm) : 229
Total P (ppm) : 209
Total K (ppm) : 232
Sodium : 90
Calcium : 25
IAA (ppm) : 8.5
GA (ppm)            : 3.5
Microbial Load
Fungi : 38800/ml
Bacteria : 1880000/ml
Lactobacillus : 2260000/ml
Total anaerobes : 10000/ml
Acid formers : 360/ml
Methanogen     : 250/ml

Physico-chemical properties of Panchagavya revealed that they possess almost all the major nutrients, micro nutrients and growth harmones (IAA & GA) required for crop growth. Predominance of fermentative microorganisms like yeast and lactobacillus might be due to the combined effect of low pH, milk products and addition of jaggery/sugarcane juice as substrate for their growth.

The low pH of the medium was due to the production of organic acids by the fermentative microbes as evidenced by the population dynamics and organic detection in GC analysis. Lactobacillus produces various beneficial metabolites such as organic acids, hydrogen peroxide and antibiotics, which are effective against other pathogenic microorganisms besides its growth. GC-MS analysis resulted in following compounds of fatty acids, alkanes, alconol and alcohols.

Fatty acids Alkanes Alconol and Alcohols
Oleic acids Decane Heptanol
Palmitic acid Octane Tetracosanol
Myristic Heptane Hexadecanol
Deconore Hexadecane Octadeconol
Deconomic Oridecane Methanol, Propanol, Butanol and Ethanol
Octanoic    
Hexanoic    
Octadeconoic    
Tetradeconoic    
Acetic, propionic, butyric, caproic and valeric acids    

3. Beneficial effects of Panchakavya on commercial crops

Mango

  • Induces dense flowering with more female flowers
  • Irregular or alternate bearing habit is not experienced and continues to fruit regularly
  • Enhances keeping quality by 12 days in room temperature
  • Flavour and aroma are extraordinary
 

Acid lime

  • Continuous flowering is ensured round the year
  • Fruits are plumpy with strong aroma
  • Shelf life is extended by 10 days

Guava

  • Higher TSS
  • Shelf life is extended by 5 days
 

Banana

In addition to adding with irrigation water and spraying, 3% solution (100 ml) was tied up at the naval end of the bunch after the male bud is removed. The bunch size becomes uniform. One month earlier harvest was witnessed. The size of the top and bottom hands was uniformly big.

Turmeric

  • Enhances the yield by 22%
  • Extra long fingers
  • Ensure low drainage loss
  • Narrows the ratio of mother and finger rhizomes
  • Helps survival of dragon fly, spider etc which in turn reduce pest and disease load
  • Sold for premium price as mother/seed rhizome
  • Enriches the curcumin content
 

Jasmine

  • Exceptional aroma and fragrance
  • No incidence of bud worm
  • Continuous flowering throughout the year
 

Vegetables

  • Yield enhancement by 18% and in few cases like Cucumber, the yield is doubled
  • Wholesome vegetables with shiny and appealing skin
  • Extended shelf life
  • Very tasty with strong flavour
     

Generally panchagavya is recommended for all the crops as foliar spray at 30 % level (3 litre panchagavya in 100 litres of water).

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4. Recommended dosage

Spray system

3% solution was found to be most effective compared to the higher and lower concentrations investigated. Three litres of Panchagavya to every 100 litres of water is ideal for all crops. The power sprayers of 10 litres capacity may need 300 ml/tank. When sprayed with power sprayer, sediments are to be filtered and when sprayed with hand operated sprayers, the nozzle with higher pore size has to be used.

Flow system 

The solution of Panchagavya can be mixed with irrigation water at 50 litres per hectare either through drip irrigation or flow irrigation

Seed/seedling treatment

3% solution of Panchagavya can be used to soak the seeds or dip the seedlings before planting. Soaking for 20 minutes is sufficient. Rhizomes of Turmeric, Ginger and sets of Sugarcane can be soaked for 30 minutes before planting.

Seed storage

3% of Panchagavya solution can be used to dip the seeds before drying and storing them.

Periodicity

Pre flowering phase

:

Once in 15 days, two sprays depending upon duration of crops

Flowering and pod setting stage

:

Once in 10 days, two sprays

Fruit/Pod maturation stage

:

Once during pod maturation

Time of application of Panchakavya for different crops is given as follows

Crops Time schedule
Rice 10,15,30 and 50th days after transpalnting
Sunflower 30,45 and 60 days after sowing
Black gram Rainfed: 1st flowering and 15 deays after flowering
Irrigated: 15, 25 and 40 days after sowing
Green gram 15, 25, 30, 40 and 50 days after sowing
Castor 30 and 45 days after sowing
Groundnut 25 and 30th days after sowing
Bhendi 30, 45, 60 and 75 days after sowing
Moringa Before flowering and during pod formation
Tomato Nursery and 40 days after transplanting: seed treatment with 1 % for 12 hrs
Onion 0, 45 and 60 days after transplanting
Rose At the time of pruning and budding
Jasmine Bud initiation and setting
Vanilla Dipping setts before planting

Effect of Panchakavya

Leaf

Plants sprayed with Panchagavya invariably produce bigger leaves and develop denser canopy. The photosynthetic system is activated for enhanced biological efficiency, enabling synthesis of maximum metabolites and photosynthates.

Stem

The trunk produces side shoots, which are sturdy and capable of carrying maximum fruits to maturity. Branching is comparatively high.

Roots

The rooting is profuse and dense. Further they remain fresh for a long time. The roots spread and grow into deeper layers were also observed. All such roots help maximum intake of nutrients and water.

Yield

There will be yield depression under normal circumstances, when the land is converted to organic farming from inorganic systems of culture. The key feature of Panchagavya is its efficacy to restore the yield level of all crops when the land is converted from inorganic cultural system to organic culture from the very first year. The harvest is advanced by 15 days in all the crops.It not only enhances the shelf life of vegetables, fruits and grains, but also improves the taste. By reducing or replacing costly chemical inputs, Panchagavya ensures higher profit and liberates the organic farmers from loan.

Drought Hardiness

A thin oily film is formed on the leaves and stems, thus reducing the evaporation of water. The deep and extensive roots developed by the plants allow to withstand long dry periods. Both the above factors contribute to reduce the irrigation water requirement by 30% and to ensure drought hardiness.

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5. Panchagavya for animal health

Panchagavya is a living elixir of many micro organisms, bacteria, fungi, proteins, carbohydrates, fats, amino acids, vitamins, enzymes, known and unknown growth promoting factors micronutrients trace elements antioxidant and immunity enhancing factors.

When taken orally by animals and human beings, the living micro organisms in the Panchagavya stimulate the immune system and produce lot of antibodies against the ingested microorganisms. It acts like vaccine. This response of the body increases the immunity of animals and humans and thus helps to prevent illness and cures disease. It slows down the aging process and restores youthfulness. The other factors present in Panchagavya improve apetite, digestion and assimilation and elimination of toxins in the body. Constipation is totally cured. Thus the animals and humans become hale and healthy with shining hair and skin. The weight gains are impressive.

Pigs

Panchagavya was mixed with drinking water or feed at the rate of 10 ml – 50 ml/pig depending upon the age and weight. The pigs became healthy and disease free. They gained weight at a faster rate. The feed to weight conversion ratio increased tremendously. This helped the piggery owners to reduce the feed cost and to get very good returns due to increased weight.

Goats and Sheep

The goats and sheep became healthy and gained more weight in a short period after having administered 10 ml to 20 ml Panchagavya per animal per day depending upon the age.

Cows

By mixing Panchagavya with animal feed and water at the rate of 100 ml per cow per day, cows become healthier with increased milk yield, fat content and SNF. The rate of conception increased. The retained placenta, mastitis and foot and mouth disease became things of the past. Now the skin of the cow is shiny with more hair and looks more beautiful. Instead of spraying urea on paddy straw (hay) before staking, a few farmers sprayed the 3 percent solution of Panchagavya, layer after layer during the staking and allowed it to ferment. The cows preferred such hay compared to unsprayed hay stock.

Poultry

When mixed with the feed or drinking water at the rate of 1 ml per bird per day, the birds became disease-free and healthy. They laid bigger eggs for longer periods. In broiler chickens the weight gain was impressive and the feed-to-weight conversion ratio improved.

Fish

Panchagavya was applied daily with fresh cow dung in fish ponds. It increased the growth of algae, weeds and small worms in the pond, thus increasing the food availability to fish. The only precaution is that fresh water must be added to the ponds at frequent intervals. Otherwise, the growth of algae, weeds and other organisms will compete with the fish for available soluble oxygen in water. Alternatively, mechanical agitators can also be used to increase the oxygen content in the water. In ten months time each fish grew to a weight of 2 to 3 kgs. With reduced death rate of small fingerlings and increased weight of marketable fish, the fisheries became more profitable.

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6. Panchagavya for human health

One lady with psoriasis all over the body was under allopathic treatment for over one and a half years. She happened to prepare Panchagavya for field use and stir the contents with her forearm. After 15 days, the psoriasis in her fore arm got fully cured. Following her own intuition, she smeared Panchagavya all over the body and to everyone's surprise; the psoriasis disappeared in 21 days.

Dosage

50 ml of filtered Panchagavya mixed with 200 ml of water, tender coconut water or fruit juice and taken orally in empty stomach in the morning. This is for all type of diseases.

AIDS/HIV

AIDS/HIV patients regained lost appetite and digestion and put on weight. They slept better. Their fever, cough, diarrhoea and skin lesions disappeared within a month's treatment. Most of them are now working in the fields and others are pursuing their own professions. Even though the blood tests are still positive, they exhibit no symptoms of AIDS and lead a normal healthy life.

Psoriasis

In Psoriasis, it is very effective and the lesions disappear within six months. In eczema and other allergic skin disorders, healing is even faster.

Neurological disorders

When given to patients suffering from neurological disorders like convulsions and Parkinsonism, it helped to reduce the frequency of the attacks in convulsions and reduced shaking of the hands and head in Parkinsonism. They were able to reduce the regular medicines.

Diabetes mellitus

When 50 ml of filtered Panchagavya per day was taken early in the morning on an empty stomach, it reduced the blood sugar and enabled the patients to reduce the dose of anti diabetic drugs. Complaints like general weakness, indigestion, constipation and burning sensation in the feet disappeared within a month. They became active and healthy.

Pulmonary Tuberculosis

It can be given in addition to the regular anti-TB drugs. Fever disappeared within a week and cough was controlled within two weeks. Appetite improved and the patients gained body weight. The duration of anti-TB treatment was reduced by one month.

Arthritis

It completely relieves the joint pain, swelling and stiffness. Arthritis is cured within two months. Now even healthy people take it to become more healthy and energetic.

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Source
Selvaraj, N., B. Anitha, B. Anusha and M. Guru Saraswathi. 2007. Organic Horticulture. Horticultural Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Udhagamandalam-643 001.

 

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