Horticulture :: Vegetables:: Cauliflower
Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis)
Ooty 1, Pusa Dapoli, Cuba Giant, Snow ball, Second early, Early kunwar and Second early kunwar are the popular cultivars.
Early Synthetic, Pawas, NS131, Tropi cross Marval, Patna mid season and Arka kanti are the popular cultivars.
It requires cool moist climate. The early varieties may tolerate higher temperature and long days. This can be grown in plains during September to February. Deep loamy soils with a pH range of 5.5 to 6.6 with higher organic matter content and good drainage are suited for cauliflower cultivation.
375 g/ha seeds are required.
100 sq. m nursery area is sufficient for raising one hectare. Apply FYM at 300 kg and 10 kg of No.5 mixture (9:9:9) along with 50 g of Sodium molybdate and 100 g of Borax. Sow the seeds at 10 cm between rows in raised seed beds after drenching it with Copper oxychloride (2.5 g/lit). Transplant 30 to 40 days old seedlings at a spacing of 45 cm. Avoid land infected with ‘club root disease’.
Raise the seedlings in shade net house. A nursery area of 5 cents with slanting slope of 2% is required for the production of seedlings for 1 ha. Cover the nursery area with 50 per cent shade net and the sides with 40/50 mesh insect proof nylon net. Form the raised beds of 1m width and convenient length inside the nursery and above the beds, place the protrays.
The Protrays of 98 cells are ideal for cauliflower seedling production. Around 600 protrays are required for of 28,333 seedlings required for one hectare at a spacing of 60 x 45 x 45 cm in three row planting
The sterilized cocopeat @ 720kg / ha is mixed with 10kg of neem cake and Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria each @ 1kg. About 1.25 kg of the cocopeat medium is required for each tray.
250 g of hybrid cauliflower seed is required for the production of seedlings for 1 ha. Treat the seeds in hot water @ 500C for 30 minutes. 25g of Azospirillum is required for the seed treatment of 250g cauliflower seeds.
Sow the seeds in protrays @ 1 seed per cell. Cover the seeds with cocopeat, keep the tray one over the other (8-10Nos) and cover with polythene sheat for 5 days or till germination starts. After 5 days when the seeds are germinated, arrange the protrays on the raised beds inside the shade net nursery. Water the tray by rose can everyday (twice / day) and drench with 19:19:19 + MN @ 0.5 % (5g/l) solution using rose can or spray micronutrient at 0.5 % 18 days after sowing. The cauliflower seedlings are ready for transplanting in 25 day
Preparation of field
Bring the soil to fine tilth and pits should be taken at a spacing of 45 cm either way in hills. Form ridges and furrows at 60 cm in plains.
Sow the seeds in raised beds and transplant 25 days (early varieties), 45 days old seedlings (late varieties) at 45 cm apart.
Irrigation is done once in a week during January and February.
Irrigation is done once in a week.
Install drip system with main and sub-main and the inline laterals placed at the interval of 1.5 m. Place the drippers at the interval of 60 cm for 4 LPH or 50 cm for 3.5 LPH, in the lateral system. Form the raised beds at 120 cm width at an interval of 30cm and place the laterals at the centre of each bed.
Application of fertilizers
Apply 30 t/ha of FYM and 90 kg N, 90 kg P and 90 kg K as basal dose and 45:45:45 kg NPK/ha after 45 days.
Apply 15 t of FYM/ha and 50 kg N, 100 kg P and 50 kg K as basal and 50 kg N after 45 days. Apply 2 kg of Departmental Vegetable micronutrient mixture without mixing with the chemical fertilizers.
Fertigation requirement for F1 hybrid: 200: 125: 125 kg of NPK / ha. Apply once in every three days throughout the cropping period.
Recommended Dose: 200:125:125 kg/ha
75% of RD of P applied as superphosphate = 586 kg/ha
Gap filling is done after 20 days of planting to maintain the population and uniform growth. Hoeing and weeding can be done on 30th and 45th day of planting. Avoid deep hoeing as it is a shallow rooted crop.
Set up light trap in summer months. Spray Chlorpyriphos 2 ml/lit in the collar region during evening hours.
Install yellow sticky trap @ 12 no/ha to monitor Macropterous adults (winged adult).
Seed treatment with Pseudomonas fluorescens at 10 g/ kg of seeds, followed by seedling dip @ 5g/ l and soil application @ 2.5 kg/ha along with 50 kg FYM before planting
Dip the seedlings in Carbendazim solution 2 g/l for 20 minutes. Drench the soil around the seedlings in the main field with Carbendazim @ 1 g/l of water. Follow crop rotation. Crucifers should be avoided for three years.
Leaf spot can be controlled by spraying Mancozeb at 2 g/lit or Carbendazim 1 g/lit.
Leaf blight can be controlled by spraying Mancozeb @ 2.5 g/ litre.
Blanching refers to covering of curds. A perfect curd of flower is pure white. It is necessary to exclude sunlight to obtain this. The common practice is to bring the outer leaves up over the curd and tie them with a twine or rubber band. By using a different coloured twine each day. It is easy at the time of harvest to select those tied earlier.
Browning or brown rot
This is caused by Boron deficiency. It appears as water soaked areas and later changes into rusty brown. Spray one kg of Borax in 500 lit of water 30 days after planting.
This results from the deficiency of Molybdenum. It is more pronounced in acidic soil. The leaf blades do not develop properly. In severe cases only the midrib develops and it can be corrected by spraying 100 g of Sodium molybdate in 500 lit of water 30 days after planting.
The term buttoning is applied to the development of small curds or buttons. The plants do not develop normally and leaves remain small and do not cover the developing curds. Deficiency of Nitrogen and planting the early varieties late may cause these symptoms. Avoid transplanting aged seedlings.
Blind-cauliflower plants are those without terminal buds. The leaves are large, thick, leathery and dark green. It is due to the prevalence of low temperature when the plants are young or due to damage to the terminal bud during handling the plants or due to injury by pests.
Hills : 20 – 30 t/ha
Plains : 15 – 20 t/ha
Updated on : 13.08.2013