Horticulture
Horticulture :: Plantation Crops :: Tea
Tea (Camellia sinensis L. O. Kuntze.)
Camelliaceae

Tamil Nadu Tea Plantation Corporation

Tea Board of India


World - Tea Production Map India - Tea Production Map

Varieties
Pandian, Sundaram, Golconda, Jayaram, Evergreen, Athrey, Brookeland, BSS 1, BSS 2, BSS 3, BSS 4, BSS 5, Biclonal seed stocks and Grafts.

Tea Bush  Tea Flower

Tea cultivars with special characters
S.No Special characters Clone Originators
1 Wind Tolerance UPASI-2  UPASI-10 UPASI-TRF India
2 Drought resistance UPASI-9 UPASI-TRF India
3 Frost resistance B-26 HPKV-TES India
4 Smallest leaf CH-1 IHBT India
5 Biggest Leaf Betjan BETJAN T.E, India
6 Blister blight tolerance TRI-2043, TRI, Sri Lanka
7 High pubescence TRI-2043 TRI, Sri Lanka
8 High anthocyanin pigmentation TRI-2025 TRI Sri Lanka
9 High tolerance to pH TN-14-3 TRF, Kenya
10 Poor fermenter 12/2 TRF, Kenya
11 Mite tolerance 7/9 TRF, Kenya
12 Scale insect tolerance TN-14-3 TRF, Kenya
13 High polyphenol content (53.7%) Luxi white tea TRI, China
14 High amino acid content (6.5%) Anji white tea TRI, China
15 Low caffeine content (0.14%) Guangdong tea TRI, China
16 High caffeine content (6.96%) Wild tea at Yunnan TRI, China
17 Water logging tolerance TV-9 TES, India
(Mondal et al., 2004)

Improved clones
S.No Clone Important features
1 UPASI 1 (Ever green) Hardy, Quality-Above average
2 UPASI 2 (Jayaram) Hardy, Quality-Above average, tolerant to drought and wind
3 UPASI 3 (Sundaram) Natural triploid quality clones and very high yielding
4 UPASI 6 (Brooklands) Suited to mid and higher elevations
5 UPASI 8 (Golconda) Suited to all elevations, high yielding
6 UPASI 9  (Arthrey) Firly tolerant to drought and withstand slightly high pH, , high yielding
7 UPASI 10 (Pandian) Hardy, Quality-Above average, tolerant to drought and wind
8 UPASI 14 (Singara) Suited to higher elevations , High yield
9 UPASI 15 (Spring field) Flushes throughout the year
10 UPASI 17 (Swarna) Flourishing well at mid and high elevations
11 UPASI 24 Hardy
12 UPASI 25 High yielding
13 UPASI 16 High yielding
14 UPASI 27 Drought tolerant
15 UPASI 28 (UPASI 10 * TRI2025) Biclonal, Good strength and high quality

Soil and climate
Tea requires well drained soil with high amount of organic matter and pH 4.5 to 5.5. The performance of tea is excellent at elevations ranging from 1000 - 2500 m.Optimum temperature: 20 - 270 C.

Nursery
The nursery soil should be well drained and deep loam in nature with pH of 4.5 to 4.8. The soil and sand used in the preparation of rooting medium should be tested for pH and nematode infestation.

Nursery

Artificial Shade by Erecting Pandal Polythene Tent with Tea Seedllings


Pre-treatment of rooting medium

Treating with Aluminium sulphate can reduce soil pH. For this purpose the nursery soil is formed into beds of one metre width and about 8 cm height and of a convenient length. Then the beds are drenched with 2% solution of Aluminium sulphate applied at 10 litres/2.5 sq.m of area. Over this another layer of soil of 8 cm height is spread and again drenched with equal quantity of water twice.  Then the soil is allowed to dry and the pH is checked before use in the nursery.

Preparation of sleeves
Polythene sleeves of 150 or 200 gauge and 10 cm width and 30 - 45 cm length may be used. Drainage holes may be provided at the bottom. The lower 3/4 of the sleeves should be filled with 1:3 sand and soil mixture and the top 1/4 with 1:1 sand and soil mixture and staked in rows. Overhead shade is provided.

Selection of mother bush and its treatment
Healthy and vigorously growing high yielding bushes should be selected.  Apply to each selected bush with 40 g of young tea mixture + 60:90 NK mixture up to 5 years. The following mixture has to applied before taking the cuttings.
  • 0.5 % AlSO4 + 1 % MgSO4 (before 3 weeks)
  • 2 % Zn SO4 (before 2 weeks)
  • 1 % Urea (before 1 week)

Preparation of cuttingsCuttings are taken on April - May and August - September. Semi hard-wood cuttings are prepared with one leaf and an internode with a slanting cut at the bottom.

Planting of cuttings
The sleeves are watered thoroughly and holes are made in the soil. The cuttings are inserted in the hole and the soil around is pressed firmly to avoid airspace followed by watering. Small polythene tents may be provided which maintain high humidity and regulate the temperature inside. Cuttings may take 10 - 12 weeks for rooting. After 90 days i.e. when all the cuttings have rooted, the polythene tent may be removed gradually over a period of 10 - 15 days.

Manuring of nursery
After the tent is removed the cuttings are sorted and staked. 30 g of Nursery soluble mixture of the following composition dissolved in 10 litres of water may be applied over an area of 4 sq.m. This should be done fortnightly.

Composition of the fertilizer
                Ammonium phosphate (20:20)                  35 parts by Wt
                Potassium sulphate                                 15 parts by Wt
                                (or)
                    MOP                                                  12 parts by Wt
                Magnesium sulphate                                15 parts by Wt
                Zinc sulphate                                           3 parts by Wt
                                 Total                                     80 parts by Wt

Hardening of the cuttings
Hardening of 4 - 6 months old young cuttings should be done by removing shade gradually in stages over a period of 4 - 6 weeks starting from a few hours exposure to sun every day initially and extending the time of exposure gradually.

Methods of planting
Single Hedge System
In this method, the spacing adopted is 1.20 x 0.75 m accommodating 10,800 plants/ha.

Double Hedge System
In this method, the spacing adopted is 1.35 x 0.75 x 0.75 m accommodating 13,200 plants/ha.


Season and planting


May - June or September - October
Sleeves should be opened lengthwise without injuring the roots and planted in the pit and the soil is gently pressed.

Irrigation
Subsoil irrigation may be given for young tea seedlings during summer months.

Vegetative Propagation
Manuring
Manuring should be done 2 months after planting. Phosphorous should be applied at 80 - 100 kg/ha as Rock phosphate once in a year by placement at 15 - 25 cm depth up to the first pruning and thereafter once in two years.  N : K ratio 2 : 3 should be adapted for the first 3 years and a ratio 1 : 1 thereafter.

Year of application Total weight kg/ha/annum No. of applications Qty/plant (g)
N K Ammonium Sulphate Urea
I year 180 270 5 13 27
II year 240 360 6 23 15
III year 300 450 6 29 18
IV year onwards 300 300 6 33 19

Application of fertilizers should be done before the onset of monsoon.  Fertilizers should be broadcast around the drip circle avoiding contact with the collar.

Aftercultivation
Perennial grasses (Forbicot weeds) can be controlled by spraying Glyphosate 1.75 lit + Kaoline 2 lit + 2 kg of wetting agent in 450 lit. of water followed by Gramoxone 500 ml in 200 lit of water to control dicot weeds.

Training young tea
Centering
To induce more laterals, centering should be done 3 - 5 months after planting.  The main leader stem should be cut, leaving 8 - 10 matured leaves.

Tipping
Tipping is done at a height of 35 cm from the second tipping at 60 cm from ground level.

Pruning
Pruning is done to maintain convenient height of bush and to remove dead and diseased branches.
Area to be pruned every year =     Total extent of the garden
                                                          Pruning cycle
Pruning interval = (Elevation in feet / 1000)   + 1
Pruning should be done in April - May or August - September.

Types of pruning
Rejuvenation pruning
The whole bush should be cut near the ground level less than 30 cm with a view to rejuvenate the bushes.

Hard pruning
Hard/ formation pruning of young tea is done at 30 to 45 cm (12" to 18") for proper spread of bushes.

Medium pruning
To check the bush growing to an inconvenient height this type of pruning is done in order to stimulate new wood and to maintain the foliage at lower levels less than 60 cm.

Light pruning
Pruning depends on the previous history of the bush raising the height of medium pruning by an inch or less to manageable heights for plucking (less than 65 cm).

Skiffing
This is the lightest of all pruning methods.  A removal of only the top 5 - 8 cm new growth is done so as to obtain a uniform level of pruning surface (more than 65 cm).

Pruned Plant

Shade regulation
Pollarding of shade trees should be done prior to heavy rains at a height of 8 - 10 m from the ground level.

Shade Trees

Annual lopping
Cutting the erect type branches on the laterals in shade trees before monsoon season.

Plant protection
Scales
Scales can be controlled by spraying Carbaryl 50 WP @ 2 g/lit. or Quinalphos 25 EC @ 2 ml/lit or Chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 2 ml/lit.

Sahydrassis / Phassus borer
Locate the particle mat covering at the base tea bush and remove.
Insert a thick wire in the bore hole to kill the larvae.

Thrips
Spray any one of the following insecticide


Insecticide

Dose

Azadirachtin 5 % Neem extract concentrate

5.0 ml/10 lit.

Azadirachtin 1.0 % EC (neem based)

2.0 ml/lit.

Ethion 50%EC

5.0 ml/10 lit.

Profenofos 50 % EC

2.0 ml/lit.

Quinalphos 25 % EC

7.5 ml/10 lt

Aphids
Spray phosalone 35 % EC @ 2.0 ml/lit

Red spider mite, Pinkmite, scarlet mite


Insecticide

Dose

Azadirachtin 5 % Neem extract concentrate

5.0 ml/10 lit.

Azadirachtin 1.0 % EC (neem based)

2.0 ml/lit.

Dicofol 18.5 % SC

2.0 ml/lit.

Ethion 50%EC

5.0 ml/10 lit.

Fenazaquin 10 % EC

1.6 ml/lit

Fenpyroximate 5 % EC

1.2 ml/lit

Flumite 20%SC/flufenzine 20%SC

5.0 ml/10 lit

Hexythiazox 5.45% EC

1.2 ml/lit

Phosalone 35 % EC

1.0 ml/lit

Profenofos 50 % EC

2.0 ml/lit.

Propargite 57 % EC

2.0 ml/lit.

Spiromesifen 22.9 % SC

1.0 ml/lit.

Tea mosquito bug:

  • Monitoring the incidence of tea mosquito bugs at regular intervals.
  • Removal of alternate hosts like neem, cashew, guava in the surroundings
  • When the infestation is lesser: Spraying of any one of the following:
  1. Imidacloprid (0.6 ml/l)
  2. Thiamethoxan (0.6 g /l)
  3. Profenophos (2 ml/l).
Diseases
Blister blight
Blister blight can be controlled by adopting the following control measures.

  • Spray 210 g Copper oxychloride and Nickel chloride per ha at 5 days interval from June - September; 11 days intervals in October and November.
  • Spray Hexagonazole 200 ml + Copper oxychloride 210 g 5 days interval/ha (or)
5222011
Blister blight
Crop duration and harvest

banji2  102489-004-898533C9 tea_process
              Banji bud                                           Harvesting in tea    

Plucking commences when the tea bush is 3 years old. The plucking of extreme tip of the growing branch consists of an unopened bud together with two leaves is popularly known as "Two leaves and a bud", while fine plucking is anything less than this. In South India plucking continues throughout the year at weekly intervals during March - May and at intervals of 10 -14 days during the other months.

Rush period
During rush period harvesting is done at 7 to 10 days interval.

Lean period
During lean period harvesting is done at 10 – 15 days interval.

banji2
Banji bud

 

Harvesting in tea

Freshly Picked Tea Leaves

 

Plucking Standard

Yield
The yield of green leaves is 10 t/ha

Different Types of Tea

 

Black Tea                                                  

Green Tea     

 

Black Tea                                                  

Oolong Tea

 

Tea Grades

 

Tea Processing Steps

Market Information


Growing Districts

Nilgiris, Coimbatore, Dindigul, Theni, Kanyakumari and
Tirunelveli districts

Major markets in Tamil Nadu

Coimbatore, Nilgiris

Grade specification

Size of the tea leaves : Whole, large tea – Higher
grading
Method of production : CTC process (Crush, Tear and
Curl) and Orthodox

 

Tea Seed

Updated on May 2014
 
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