Horticulture
Horticulture :: Flower Crops :: Gerbera


GERBERA (Gerbera jamesonii)

Compositae

Varieties                                                                                                                 

              TNAU Varieties: YCD-1, YCD-2
               Red          : Ruby Red, Sangria
               Yellow      : Doni,Supernova, Mammut, Talasa
               Rose        : Rosalin, Salvadore
               Pink         : Pink Elegance, Marmara, Esmara
               Orange     : Carrera, Goliath,Marasol
               Cream      : Farida, Dalma, Snow Flake, Winter Queen
             

Climate:
Production of quality flowers requires shade house (50%) or naturally ventilated polyhouse. Day temperature of 22-25°C and night temperature of 12-16°C are ideal.

Soil:
Well drained, rich, light, neutral or slightly alkaline soil with pH range of 5.5 - 7.0.

Media preparation

Season                                                                                                                   
The crop can be cultivated throughout the year.

Propagation:
Commercially propagated through division of suckers and tissue culture plants.

Field preparation and planting:
Soil fumigation withFormaldehyde (100ml in 5l/m2) or Dazomet (30g/m2) is recommended to control soil borne pathogens (Phytophthora, Fusarium and Pythium). Raised beds of 1-2m width and 30cm height are prepared. Growing media consisting of FYM: sand: cocopeat/paddy husk (2:1:1) is ideal.

Greenhouse cultivation of gerbera

Before starting gerbera cultivation, disinfection of the soil is absolutely necessary to minimize the infestation of soil borne pathogens like Phytophthora, Fusarium and Pythium which could otherwise destroy the crop completely. The beds should be drenched / fumigated with 2% formaldehyde (100 ml formalin in 5 litres of water / m2 area) or methyl bromide (70 g / m2) and then covered with a plastic sheet for a minimum period of 2 to 3 days.  The beds should be subsequently watered thoroughly to drain the chemicals before planting. Well developed tissue culture plants having 4-6 leaves can be planted firmly without burying the crown.

Spacing:
40 x 30 cm or 30 x 30 cm

Irrigation
Drip irrigation is done once in 2 – 3 days @ 3.75 litre/drip/plant for 15 – 20 minutes. Average water requirement is about 500 – 700 ml/day/plant.

gerbera ready for harvest
Drip irrigation for gerbera

Nutrition: Fertigation is adopted from 3rd week after planting as per the following schedule.


Fertilizer

Quantity (g/500m2)

A tank (Monday, Wednesday, Friday)

Calcium Nitrate

700

Pottasium Nitrate ( 13:0:46)

400

Fe EDTA / sulphate

20

B tank (Tuesday, Thursday, Saturday)

Mono Ammonium Phosphate (12:61:0)

300

Sulphate of Potash (0:0:50)

700

Magnesium Sulphate

700

Manganese Sulphate

5

Zinc Sulphate

3

Copper Sulphate

3

Molybdenum (Sodium Molybdate)

1

Boron (Borax)

3

Manuring
Basal                                                                                                                       
Neem cake 2.5 ton/ha
P  - 400 g/100 sq.ft.
MgSo4 - 0.5 kg/100 sq.ft.

Top dressing
Calcium Ammonium Nitrate and Muriate of Potash at the ratio of 5:3 is mixed and applied at 2.5 g/plant/month.

Aftercultivation
1. Hand weeding is done whenever necessary.
2. Remove the flower buds up to 2 months and then allow for flowering
3. Rake the soil once in 15 days to facilitate easy absorption of water, fertilizer and to provide air to the roots.
4. Remove older leaves to facilitate new leaf growth and good sanitation.

Special practices
Leaf pruning:
Remove old leaves periodically

Plant protection
Pests
Aphids:
Apply Imidacloprid 17.8 % SL @ 1 ml/l or Dimethoate 30 EC @ 2 ml/l

Whitefly:
Spray Imidacloprid 17.8 % SL @ 2 ml/l or Dimethoate 30 EC @ 2 ml/l

Thrips:
Spray Fipronil @ 2 ml/l or Dimethoate 30EC @ 2 ml/l 

Red spider mite:
Spray Abamectin 1.9 EC @ 0.4 ml/l or Propargite @ 1 ml/l

Nematode:
Soil application ofBacillus subtilis (BbV 57)or Pseudomonasfluorescens @ 2.5 kg/ha at the time of planting for the management of root knot nematode.

Diseases:
Flower bud rot: Spray copper oxychloride @ 2 g/l

Powdery mildew: Spray wettable Sulphur @ 2g/l or Azoxystrobin @ 1g/l

Season of flowering and Harvesting                                                              
When flowers completely open, harvesting is done. Flower stalk is soaked in Sodium hypochloride solution (5-7 ml/lit of water) for 4-5 hours to improve vase life.    

full bloom stage of gerbera
Gerbera ready for harvest

Post harvest handling
Harvesting is done when outer 2-3 rows of disc florets are perpendicular to the stalk. The heel for the stalk should be cut about 2-3 cm above the base and kept in fresh chlorinated water. Flowers should be graded and sorted out in uniform batches. Flowers packed individually in poly puches and then put in to carton boxes in two layers.

Bushiness
An abnormality characterized by numerous leaves, short petioles and small laminae, which gives some cultivars of gerbera a bushy appearance known as bushiness. Nodes are not clearly distinguished and no internode elongation is seen.

Stem break
It is a common post harvest disorder in cut gerberas. This is mainly caused by water imbalances. It could be ethylene controlled and associated with early senescence caused by water stress.

Yellowing and purple margin
Nitrogen deficiency causes yellowing and early senescence of leaves. Phosphorus deficiency causes pale yellow colour with purple margin. Increase in levels of nitrogen and phosphorus were found to promote development of suckers and improve flowering in gerbera.

Grading                                                                                                                  
Based on stem length and diameter, flowers are graded in A, B, C and D.

Yield                                                                                                                        
The crop yields 2 stems / plant / month.  Harvest starts from 3rd month of planting and continued up to two years. Under open condition, 130 -160 flowers / m2 / year and under greenhouse condition, 175 - 200 flowers /m2/ year can be obtained.

Source
1. http://www.starfiber.com/image.php?id=182&type=Gerbera%20Substrate
2. http://image59.webshots.com/759/5/14/95/2838514950026222415OIwUdq_fs.jpg

 

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