Horticulture
Horticulture :: TNAU :: Technologies

HORTICULTURAL TECHNOLOGIES FROM TNAU

1. Technologies developed during 2005
2. Technologies developed during 2006
3. Technologies developed during 2007
4. Technologies developed during 2008


1. Technologies developed during 2005

i. Production practices for cultivation of capsicum and tomato in polyhouse

Details of Technology

  • The growing medium, irrigation regime, fertilizer application and mulching for capsicum (hybrid Indra) and tomato (hybrid SH 7711) under naturally ventilated polyhouse conditions were standardized.
Particular Capsicum Tomato
Growing medium Soil : FYM : composted coir pith (2:1:1).
Irrigation regime 20 kPa
Fertilizer application Basal – NPK each @ 50 kg / ha through straight fertilizers
Fertigation - NPK each @ 150 kg / ha through water soluble fertilizer Fertigation - NPK each @ 250 kg / ha through water soluble fertilizer
Mulching Black polyethylene sheet (50 micron)

Benefits

  • Ensures high productivity with good quality produce in capsicum and tomato.
  • Acts as mechanical barrier to pests and vectors of viral diseases.
  • Regulation of microclimate in the polyhouse will minimize the crop loss due to abiotic stresses.
  • An eco-friendly production system, which minimizes the use of harmful pesticides significantly. 
  • Beneficial for off -season production and removing seasonality barrier.

Economics

Particulars Capsicum Tomato
Yield (t/ha) 143 176
B/C ratio 3.40 1.76

ii. Value added cabbage

Details of Technology

  • Select matured clean cabbage
  • Shred it to 5 mm size and mix with 2.5 % salt
  • Pack it layer by layer in a container to 2/3 height
  • Seal hermetically & allow for natural fermentation at room temperature
  • Blanch it at 70 0 C for 10 min, after 28 days
  • Store under shade in clean place and use it within four months

Benefits

  • Fermented cabbage releases isothiocyanate from glucosinolate present in the cabbage, which fights against cancer.
  • Consumption of  value added cabbage  reduces the risk of cancer on breast, lungs & colon
  • Reduces post harvest losses during peak season and also has export potential.

Economics

  • Cost of production : Rs.50 / kg
  • Cost of imported saurkraut : Rs.350 / kg

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2. Technologies developed during 2006

i. Micro sprinkler irrigation for curry leaf

Details of Technology

  • Micro sprinkler irrigation once in two days at 40 per cent pan evaporation (PE) under paired row planting with a spacing of 0.75 m between rows and 1.25 m between pairs of rows.

Micro sprinkler irrigation  schedule for sandy loam soils

Season Time of operation
January – February 1 hr
March – June           1 hr. 30 min
July – September                 1 hr
October – December 45 min

In the case of lay-out, laterals are to be laid at 2 m interval and each micro sprinkler is to be erected in the centre of four plants within the paired row. The micro sprinklers of 16 lph are to be placed at 2 m spacing along the lateral.

Benefits

  • Saving in irrigation water upto 51 per cent

       Surface irrigation            : 1134 mm/year
       Micro sprinkler irrigation  :   555 mm/year

  • Area under irrigation will be twice
  • Saving in energy, labour and other inputs

Economics

Added cost for micro sprinkler installation                           = Rs.49,000/ha
Taking the life of the system as ten years,                          = Rs.9,800/ha
added cost per ha per year            
Added returns per year                                                      = Rs.2,238/ha

Reduction in cost in micro sprinkler irrigation per year

Value of labour saved due to reduced irrigation charges       = Rs.9,000/ha
Reduction in weeding cost                                                = Rs.9,600/ha
Total reduction in cost                                                      = Rs.18,600/ha

Particulars (Rs/ha) Surface irrigation Micro sprinkler irrigation
Gross return 73,854 76,092
Total cost of cultivation 20,854 15,250*
Net return 53,000 60,842

*  includes cost of micro sprinkler systems apportioned for ten years (Rs.49,000/ha.)

Net change in income (increase in profit)   = (Rs.60842 - Rs.53,000)
                                                              = Rs.7,842/ha
Hence as per partial budgeting micro sprinkler irrigation is economically feasible

ii. Shade net cultivation with fertigation in tomato

Details of Technology

  • The influence of shade and fertigation on growth and productivity of tomato were standardized.

            Hybrid           :           Ruchi
            Shade            :           35 per cent
            Spacing         :           Paired row planting 80x40x60 cm (between pairs, rows and plants)  

  • Fertilizer application 

            Basal: NK each @ 50 kg/ha and P at 250 kg/ha through straight fertilizers
            Fertigation: NK each @ 200 kg/ha through straight fertilizers   

Benefits

  • Fetches a premium price in the market where there is demand for the fruits during summer.
  • Shade net cultivation helps to grow tomato under protected environment to increase the productivity during off seasons.
  • Besides high productivity the shade net also acts mechanical barriers to pest and vectors of viral diseases.
  • Microclimate in the shade net will minimize the crop loss due to abiotic stresses and also reduces the weed intensity greatly.
  • Shade net can be utilized during rainy season also vegetable crops with   higher marketable price can be grown in order to fetch higher returns which provide year round production.

Economics

  • Yield (t/ha)    : 96.0
  • B/C ratio       : 3.07
    iii. Protected cultivation techniques for cut chrysanthemum

Details of Technology

  • The growing medium, irrigation regime, fertilizer application and photoperiod regulation for Cut Chrysanthemum under poly house conditions were standardized

Variety:                    low Regan
Area of Poly house:  1000 m2
Growing Media:        Soil + Compost + Cocopeat @1:1:2
Irrigation:                  40 kPa
Spacing:                   20 x 15 cm
Nutrition:                  10:20:10 g/m2 NPK through soil application as basal, i.e. 50% N as basal and remaining 50% N  i.e. 10 g/m2 as top dressing at flower bud opening stage.
Spacing:                  20 x 15 cm
Photoperiod:             14 hours dark and 10 hours light
Light intensity:          3000 Lux
Temperature:            25 -350 C
Relative humidity:      60-70%

Benefits

  • Ensures high productivity with good quality flowers.
  • Act as a mechanical barrier to pests and diseases.
  • Microclimate regulation will reduce the crop loss due to climatic factors.
  • An eco-friendly cultivation system, which reduces the use of harmful chemicals.
  • Beneficial for off season production by providing short day conditions.

Economics

  • This technology helps the grower get an average of 240 sprays/m2 (239.3 during summer and 240.3 in winter) with 3.54 flowers / spray in summer and 3.56 / spray in winter

Gross returns:       Rs.15,12,000 /-
Cost of production: Rs.4,39,200 /-
Net return:             Rs.10,72,800 /-
BC Ratio:              1: 3.44

iv. Aonla based mouth freshener

Details of Technology

  • Select matured, firm and fibreless aonla fruits and wash in cold water. Deseed the fruits with aonla deseeder and slice into small pieces with vegetable slicer. Weigh the desired spice combinations and mix with aonla pieces. Soak it for 48 hrs, mix once or twice during curing.
    • Aonla + lime + salt (Aonla 100 g, lime juice 15 %, salt 5%)
    • Aonla + ginger + salt (Aonla 100 g, ginger 5 %, salt 5%)
    • Aonla + pepper + salt (Aonla 100 g, pepper 5 %, salt 5%)
    • Aonla+ lime + ginger + salt (aonla 100g, lime juice 15%, ginger 5%, salt 5%)
    • Aonla + lime + pepper +salt (aonla 100 g, lime juice 15%, pepper 5%, salt 5%)
    • Aonla + pepper + ginger + salt (aonla 100 g, pepper and ginger 5%, salt 5%)
    • Aonla + pepper + ginger + lime + salt (aonla 100 g, pepper 3%, ginger 3%, lime juice 15, salt 5%)
    • Dry it in a cabinet drier at 60 to 800C for 4 to 5 hrs. Pack it and store in an airtight container.

Benefits

  • Value addition of aonla will increase the production and the economic value of the crop among the farmers
  • Dehydrated aonla supari will be the good substitute for chewing areca nut and tobacco and it will help to maintain the health profile
  • Processing of aonla will lead to additional income for growers and entrepreneurs

Economics

  • Cost of production    : Rs.50/kg

3. Technologies developed during 2007

i. Protein enriched spicy mango bar

Details of Technology

  • Screening mango varieties for processing value added products: Based on quality parameters viz., high pulp yield, rich mango flavour, appealing colour, less fibrous matter and low cost. Neelum and Totapuri mango varieties were selected for processing of mango bar.
  • Selection of suitable pulse protein source: Soybean and green gram (protein 43.2% and 24.5% respectively) were selected for the incorporation in mango bar.

Method of preparation
Suitable pre-treatments for the incorporation of protein sources

  • Greengram dhal was roasted slightly to remove the raw flavour.  Then ground into fine flour.  The greengram dhal flour was steamed for 10 minutes, dried and passed through fine mesh to avoid clumps
  • Soy flour was steamed for 10 minutes to reduce the raw beany flavour and to inactivate trypsin inhibitor.  The steamed flour was dried and passed through fine mesh to avoid clumps
  • Soy protein isolate was steamed for 10 minutes.  The steamed flour was dried and passed through fine mesh to avoid clumps

Preparation of spicy mango bar

  • The mango pulp (80 g) was heated for 3 minutes to inactivate the enzymes
  • Corn flour (4 g) was made into paste with little amount of water (to avoid the formation of clumps)
  • The pulp was mixed with corn flour paste, sugar (50 g), chilli powder (0.75 g), asafoetida (0.1 g) and greengram (20 g) / soy flower (20 g) / soy protein isolate (10 g) / skim milk powder (10 g)
  • This mix was heated on medium flame by stirring continuously using a wooden laddle upto a final TSS of 45º Brix
  • The concentrated pulp was cooled to room temperature and 0.1 per cent KMS was added and mixed thoroughly.  The finished pulp was spread evenly in an aluminium tray to a thickness of 0.5 cm and dried at 60ºC for 6 hr in a cabinet drier
  • Then the dried piece was cut into bars of 9 x 3 cm size, packed and were stored at room temperature

Benefits

  • It is an improvement of the existing technology to develop nutritious mango bar
  • Combination of pulse protein with carotene rich mango pulp could result in alleviations of protein energy malnutrition in young children
  • Therapeutic bar processing will increase the market demand for mango and hence the farmers could be benefitted

Economics

  • Cost of production – Rs. 4/100 g
    ii. Shade net technology for sweet pepper and paprika

Details of Technology

 

•Standardized influence of shade on growth and productivity in sweet pepper and paprika
•Variety          : Sweet pepper - Indra
                        Paprika - Kt - PL – 19
•Shade           : 35 % as against earlier 50%
•Spacing        : Paired row planting 80x40x60 cm (beween pairs, rows and plants) 

Benefits

  • Fetches a premium price  
  • Production during off seasons
  • Mechanical barrier to pest and virus pathogens
  • 50% higher yield over open cultivation
  • Microclimate  due to shade net  abates abiotic stresses and  weed intensity

Economics

Particulars Shade net (35%) Open
Sweet pepper
Yield (t / ha) 95.32 15.3
B : C 3.85 1.58
Paprika
Yield (t / ha) 9.32 1.35
B : C 2.66 1.26

     
iii. Soil test based IPNS for vegetable crops

Details of Technology

  • The Soil Test based Integrated Plant Nutrient Supply System (IPNS) aims at achieving higher yield by balanced fertilization through conjoint use of mineral fertilizers, organic manures and bio- fertilizers to meet the crop nutrient requirement. IPNS for vegetable crops not only helps in reducing cost of the chemical fertilizers but also maintains soil health.

Benefits

  • The cost on fertilizers can be reduced.
  • Efficiency of fertilizer use can be increased.
  • Least adverse effect on environment by minimizing nutrient losses,   maintaining soil productivity and sustaining high yield even under varying soil, climate and agro ecological set up.

Economics

  • In vegetables, if Integrated  Nutrient Management is adopted, a profit of Rs.1,41,600/- in carrot, Rs.36,000/- in potato, Rs.46,000/- in cauliflower, Rs.53,000/- in cabbage can be obtained than the general recommendation of fertilizers

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4. Technologies developed during 2008

i. High density planting in mango

Details of Technology

  • Mango trees are normally planted by farmers at a spacing of 10 x 10 m accommodating 100 trees per hectare.  Under this system, due to less number of trees the productivity per unit area is low.  In the normal spacing the tree canopy takes 8 years to cover the area.  Hence high density planting system is suggested for higher productivity efficient utilization of land and other natural resources.  The result of 14 years research in mango is presented below.
  • Double hedge row system (10x5x5 cm) can accommodate 222 plants/ha compared to 100 trees/ha in conventional system of planting (10m x 10m) the increased population is around 122%. 

Double hedge row planting  


                                               
Spacing: 10 x 5 x 5 m

Benefits

  • More plants can  be accommodated (122% increase in population over the square system of planting) per unit area
  • More yield can be obtained (9.45 t/ha) compared to square system (5.05 t/ha)

Economics

  • The increased yield in double hedge row system is (88%) over conventional system. 
  • The yield in double hedge row system is 9.45 t/ha with a cost benefit ratio of 5.82 compared to conventional system (5.05 t/ha with a cost benefit of 5.05).

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