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Crop Protection :: Cash Crops :: Pest of Sugarcane

Insect pests of sugarcane

Crop: Sugarcane

Scientific name: Saccharum officinarum

Family: Poaceae

 

Important pests

 

1. Early shoot borer: Chilo infuscatellus

Symptoms of damage

  • Dead heart in 1-3 months old crop, which can be easily pulled out
  • Rotten portion of the straw coloured dead heart emits an offensive odour        
  • Bore holes at the base just above the ground level

Identification of the pest

  • Larva - Five dark violet stripes and dark brown head
  • Adult - Pale greyish brown moth with white hind wings
Larva Adult
Bore holes
Side tiller formation
Dead heart

Management

  • Early planting during main season.
  • Intercrop: Daincha – low shoot borer incidence
  • Trash mulching: 10 – 15 cm thickness on 3 days after planting
  • Earthing up: 45 th Days After Planting (DAP).
  • Remove and destroy dead hearts
  • Spray Granulosis virus 106 – 107 twice on 35 and 50 days after planting (DAP)
  • Tachinid parasite: Sturmiopsis inferens @ 125 gravid females from 30- 50 days of planting
  • Whorl application: Sevidol 4G @ 12.5 kg or Lindane 10 G 12 kg + 37.5 kg of sand / ha
  • Soil application: Carbofuran 3G @ 33 kg/ ha or chlorpyriphos @ 12.5kg/ ha
  • Spray chlorpyriphos 20 EC @1000 ml / ha or NSKE 5 % twice.
  
 

2. Stem or internode borer: Chilo sacchariphagus indicus

Symptoms of damage

  • Internodes constricted and shortened with a number bore holes and frass in the nodal region
  • Affected tissues reddened

Identification of the pest

  • Larva - four violet or pink stripes and light brown head
  • Adult - Pale brown with white hind wings

 

Larva
Adult
Feeding injury Reddening of cane Bore holes
Management
  • Collect and destroy the eggs periodically
  • Detrash: 150 and 210 DAP
  • Avoid use of excessive nitrogen fertilizers
  • Egg parasitoid: Trichogramma chilonis @ 2.5 c.c / ha (6 releases from 4th month onwards at 15 days interval)
 

3. Top shoot borer: Scripophaga excerptalis 

    Symptoms of damage

  • Parallel rows of shot holes in the emerging leaves and
  • Red tunnels in the   midribs of leaves
  • Dead heart in grown up canes which cannot be easily pulled
  • Dead heart reddish brown in colour
  • Bunchy top due to growth of side shoots

 

Shot holes on leaves
Bunch top
Dead heart

 

Identification of the pest

  • Larva - Smooth, white or cream coloured with a red coloured mid dorsal line
  • Adult - White coloured moth. Female has buff coloured anal tuft in abdominal tips

Larva
Adult

Management

  • Collect and destroy the egg masses
  • Release Ichneumonid parasitoid:  Isotima javensis @ 125 females / ha (prepupal parasitoid)  
NOTE: fields showing more than 10 percent top borer infestation.
 

4.  Leafhopper: Pyrilla perpusilla

Symptoms of damage

  • Leaves become yellow
  • Covered with black sooty mould
  • Top leaves get dried up and lateral buds germinate

Identification of the pest

  • Nymph - soft, pale brown dorsally and pale orange ventrally with two characteristic anal filaments
  • Adult - Straw coloured, head pointing forward as a snout

 

Adult

Management

  • Avoid excessive use of nitrogenous fertilizers
  • Set up light trap
  •  Detrash: 150 and  210th  DAP
  •  Release lepidopteran parasitoid:
  • Epiricrania melanoleuca @8000 -10,000 cocoon /ha (or) 8 - 10 lacs egg/ha.
  • Spray any one of the following on the 150th and 210th day (1000 l spray fluid): 
    • Malathion 50 EC 2000 ml
    • Monocrotophos 36 WSC 2000 ml
 

5. Whitefly:  Aleurolobus barodensis  

Symptoms of damage

  • Yellowing of leaves turn pinkish latter
  • Gradual drying and presence of sooty mould

Identification of the pest

  • Nymph - Neonate pale yellow – latter turn shiny black
  • Adult - Pale yellow
Wilting of leaves
 

6. Cane mealy wing whitefly: Neomaskellia bergii

Symptoms of damage

  • Black, grey or white dot like in appearance
  • Infests under surface of leaves 

Identification of the pest

  • Nymph - Brownish oval
  • Adult - Black bands on wings

Management

  • Avoid excessive use of nitrogenous fertilizers
  • Fenitrothion 50 EC @ 2 lit or moncrotohphos 36 SL @  2 lit /ha
 

7. Scale insect: Melanaspis glomerata

Symptoms of damage

  • Dark encrustations on the internode

Identification of the pest

  • Greyish black or brown circular scale

Management

  • Select scale insect free setts
  •  Bunds free from weeds
  •  Avoid repeated ratoons
  • Detrash as per schedule
  • Drain excess water
  • Avoid water stagnation
  • Presoak the setts in 0.1% malathion solution
  • Spray of the following insecticides(120/150 day after detrashing)
    • Dimethoate 30 EC @ 2ml/lit of water  
    • methyl demeton 25 EC @ 2ml/lit of water  
 

8. Mealy bug: Kiritshenkella sacchari , Pink mealy bug: Sacchricoccus sacchari

Symptoms of damage

  • Pinkish, oval insects  found beneath leaf sheath on the nodes
  • White mealy coating
  • Stunting of main cane and also attack roots

    Identification of the Pest

    • Adult - Flattened, pinkish, oval with mealy coating

Management

  • Avoid excessive use of nitrogenous fertilizers
  • Drain excess water.
  • Spray malathion 50 EC@ 1 lit /ha.

Identification of the pest

  • Nymph - Third and fourth instar nymphs covered with white wooly secretion
  • Adult - Apterous adults covered with white wooly secretion
  • Ceratovacuna lanigera - Light green colour
  • C. graminum - Light yellow in colourWinged adult is black in colour

 

 

9. Wooly Aphid: Ceratovacuna lanigera , Ceratovacuna graminum

Symptoms of damage

  • Nymph and adults suck the sap from leaves
  • Honey dew excrete – development of sooty mould fungus
  • White chalk powder coating on the ground and leaves.

Identification of the pest

  • Nymph - Third and fourth instar nymphs covered with white wooly secretion
  • Adult - Apterous adults covered with white wooly secretion
  • Ceratovacuna lanigera - Light green colour
  • C. graminum - Light yellow in colourWinged adult is black in colour

 

Management

  • Field release of biocontrol agents like Dipha aphidivora, Micromus and coccinellids
  • Avoiding transportation of aphid infested leaves from one location to another.
  • Avoiding use of infested cane for seed purpose.
  • Ensuring that the insecticides treated leaves are not used as fodder.
  • Spray any one of the following insecticides once or twice in affected patches: 
    • acephate 75SP @ 2gm/lit,
    • chlorpyrifos 25EC @ 2ml/lit,
    • monocrotophos 36WSC @ 2ml/lit.
 

10. Aphid: Melanaphis sacchari, M.indosacchari

Symptoms of damage
  • Yellowing of leaves, colonies of aphids in central leaf whorl presence of ants

Identification of the pest

  • Nymph - Yelow
  • Adult - Purple

Management

  • Detrash as per schedule
  • Drain excess water
 

11. Termite: Odontotermes obesus  

Symptoms of damage

  • Poor germination of  setts ( After  Planting)
  • Characteristic  semi- circular  feeding  marks on the leaves in the standing crop
  • Entire shoot dries up and can be pulled out easily
  • Setts hollow  inside  and may be filled with soil
  • Cane collapses if disturbed
  • Rind filled with mud

Identification of the pest

  • Cream coloured, tiny insects resembling ants with dark coloured head

Management

  • Flood irrigate the furrows to avoid termite attack in the furrows at the time of planting

Sett treatment -

  • Dip the setts in imidacloprid 70 WS 0.1% or Chlorpyriphos 20 EC 0.04 % for 5 min.
  • Soil application - Apply lindane 1.3 D 125 kg/ha
  • Spray application of Imidacloprid 200 SL at 250 ml in 250 l of water / ha

 

 

12. Root grub: Holotrichia consanguinea: H. serrata, Leucopholis lepidophora

Symptoms of damage
  • Yellowing and wilting of leaves
  • Drying of crown
  • Affected canes come off easily

Identification of the pest

   i) Holotrichia consanguineaH. serrata,

  • Egg - White, almost round.
  • Larva - Young grubs are translucent, whitish yellow  in colour,  fleshy ‘C’ - shaped
  • Adults - Dark brown beetle
ii) Leucopholis lepidophora
  • Larvae- creamy white with swollen dark last abdominal segment
  • Adults – Reddish brown beetle with dark tinge

Management

  • Set up light trap
  •  Provide adequate irrigation
  •  Crop rotation in endemic areas
  •  Collect and destroy the adult beetles present on neem, Ailanthus and Acacia
  •  Lindane 1.3 D @ 50 kg /ha near the root zone


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