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Crop Protection :: Pests of Sapota


Common name: Sapota

S.N: Achras sapota

Family: Sapotaceae

Major pests

Major pests of sapota

I. Borers
Bud worm, Anarsia epotias Symptoms Identification Management
Fruit fly, Bactrocera (Dacus) dorsalis Symptoms Identification Management
Stem borer, Plocaederus ferrugineus Symptoms Identification Management
II. Leaf feeders
Leaf webber or Chichoo moth, Nephopteyrx eugraphella Symptoms Identification Management
Hairy caterpillar, Metanastria hytaca Symptoms Identification Management
III. Sap feeders
Striped mealy bug: Ferrisia virgata Symptoms Identification Management
Green Scale, Coccus viridis Symptoms Identification Management

A.BORERS
1. Bud worm, Anarsia epotias 
Symptoms of damage

  • Webbed flowers and buds
  • Shedding of buds and flowers.
  • Bore holes and excreta seen on attacked flowers.
Identification of the pest
  • Larva - small, slender, pinkish brown with black head
  • Adult: Grey moth with black patch on wings.
Management
  • Spray phosalone 35 EC 2 ml/lit or phosphamidon 40 SL 2 ml/lit.
  • Application of neem oil 2% or neem seed kernel extract 5 %.

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2. Fruit flyBactrocera (Dacus) dorsalis 
Symptoms of damage
  • Maggot bore into semi-ripen fruits with decayed spots and dropping of fruits.
  • Oozing of fluid
  • Brownish rotten patches on fruits.
Identification of pest
  • Larva - Yellowish apodous maggots.
  • Adult - Light brown with transparent wing
Maggots
Adult
Management
  • Collect fallen infested fruits and dispose them by dumping in a pit and covering with soil.
  • Provide summer ploughing to expose the pupa
  • Monitor the activity of flies with methyl eugenol sex lure traps.
  • Use bait spray combing any one of the insecticides and molasses or jaggery 10 g/l
    • fenthion 100EC 1ml/l,
    • malathion 50EC 2 ml/l,
    • dimethoate 30 EC 1 ml/l,
    • carbaryl 50 WP 4 g/l. two rounds at 2 weeks interval before ripening of fruits.
  • Prepare bait with methyl eugenol 1% solution mixed with malathion 0.1%.
  • Take 10 ml of this mixture per trap and keep them in 25 different places in one hectare
  • Heavy infestation - application of dust and sprays of pyrethrum
  • Spray fenthion 100 EC 2 ml/ lit or malathion 50 EC 2ml/lit.
  • Field release of natural enemies Opius compensates and Spalangia philippines

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3. Stem borer, Plocaederus ferrugineus

Symptom of damage

  • Presence of small holes at the collar region
  • Gummosis
  • Extrusion of frass through the bore holes at the collar region
  • Yellowing and shedding of leaves
  • Drying up of twigs and gradual death of the tree.

Identification of the pest

  • Adult - medium sized reddish brown beetle.
  • Head and thorax - dark brown or almost black.

Management

  • Collect and destroy the damaged plants
  • Field sanitation
  • Swab Coal tar + Kerosene @ 1:2 or Carbaryl 50 WP 20 g / l on the basal portion of the trunk ( 3 feet height)
  • After scraping the loose bark to prevent oviposition by adult beetles.
  • Padding with monocrotophos 36 WSC 10 ml in 2.5 cm /tree soaked in absorbent cotton.
  • If infestations are severe then apply the copper oxychloride paste on the trunk of the tree.
  • Hook out the grub from the bore hole and apply monocrotophos 10 to 20 ml/ hole (or)
  • One celphos tablet (3 g aluminum phosphide) per hole
  • Apply carbofuran 3G 5 g per hole and plug with mud.

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 B. LEAF FEEDERS
4. Leaf webber or Chichoo moth, Nephopteyrx eugraphella 
Symptoms of damage
  • Caterpillar webs and feed on  leaves
  • Scrapping chlorophyll content  
  • Leaves dried and hanging from the webbed shoots
  • Caterpillar bores into flower buds and tender fruits - withered and shed.
Identification of the pest
  • Egg - pale yellow colour, oval shaped
  • Larva – pinkish in colour, brown stripes on each side of the body.
  • Adult: Greyish moth with brown or black spot on the fore wing
Management
  • Remove and destruct the infested fruits from the orchard
  • Collect and remove the dried  clusters of leaf web
  • Insecticides: Spray phosalone 35 EC 2 ml/lit or phosphamidon 40 SL 2 ml/lit or neem seed kernel extract
    5 %.
  • Spray application of cypermethrin 0.025 % affords protection.

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5. Hairy caterpillarMetanastria hytaca 
Symptoms of damage
  • Caterpillars feed on leaves
  • Defoliation
Identification of the pest
  • Larva - yellowish brown with black spots and long lateral tufts of hairs
  • Adults: Grayish head and thorax and whitish abdomen.
  • Forewings are reddish brown spot ringed with white
  • Hind wings are white.
Management
  • Field sanitation
  • Free from weeds and debris
  • Collect and destroy the egg mass
  • Burning the groups of larvae found on tree trunks with torches.
  • Spray chlorpyriphos 20EC or phosalone 2 ml/l
  • Spraying of cypermethrin 0.025%.
  • Dusting carbaryl 10 D on the trunk and branches (around the tree 4 feet)
  • Field release of chalcidid wasp, Brachymeria sp.

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C. SAP FEEDERS
6. Striped mealy bug: Ferrisia virgata

Symptoms of damage

  • Presence of white mealy mass on the terminal shoots and under surface of the leaves
  • Yellowing of older leaves

Identification of the pest

  • Adult - Female has long filaments on the posterior end of the body

Management        

  • Collect and destroy egg masses and caterpillars
  • Use burning torch to kill the congregating larvae
  • Use light trap to attract and kill the adults
  • Spray methyl demeton 25 EC@ 0.05%or dimethoate 30 EC @ 0.06%
  • Field release of Cryptoleamus montrouzieri 20 per tree

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7. Green ScaleCoccus viridis

Coffee- Green coffee scale (Coccus viridis) on the back of a leaf. Note the black sooty mould

Symptoms of damage

  • Nymphs and adults suck the sap from leaves
  • Yellowing of leaves

Identification of the pest

  • Nymph: Pale lemon yellow
  • Adult: green, flat oval soft scale

Management

  • Prune and destroy the infested shoots at initial stage of infestation.
  • Spray monocrotophos 1ml/lit or phenthoate 1ml/lit
  • After two weeks release 20 predator beetles viz., C. montrouzieri beetle per tree.
  • Encourage parasitoids viz., Aneristis sp Coccophgagus cowperi, C. bogoriensis

 


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