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Crop Protection :: Pest of paddy

Image Source: Dr.R.P.Soundararajan

Email ID: sound_insect73@hotmail.com

  Crop : Rice

  Scientific Name : Oryza Sativa

  Order: Cyperales

  Family : Poaceae

  Local Names : Nellu

 

 

 

  Important pests of Rice

  I. Nursery Pests

  II. Main Field Pests
I. Nursery pests
1. Thrips: Stenchaetothrips biformis
Symptoms of damage
  • Laceration of  the tender leaves and suck the plant sap
  • Yellow (or) silvery streaks on the leaves of young seedlings
  • Terminal rolling and drying of leaves from tip to base
  • It causes damage both in nursery and main field
  • leaf shows discoloration and rolling
  • Damaged leaves visible as silvery streaks
  • Leaves damaged have silvery streaks or yellowish patches
  • Translucent epidermis becomes visible on damaged area
  • Leaves curled from the margin to the middle
  • Leaf tips wither off when severely infested
  • Unfilled grains at panicle stage
Damage of Thrips in Nursery

Identification of insect pest 

The adult has a slender body. It is dark brown and 1-2 mm long. It exists in two forms, winged or wingless. The winged form has two pairs of elongated narrow wings that are fringed with long hairs.

The pupa has long wing pads that reach two-thirds the length of the abdomen. It also has four pointed processes on the ninth abdominal tergite. The prepupa is brown. Four pointed processes are present on the hind margin of the ninth abdominal tergite.

Neonate larvae are transparent and towards the second molting, they turn to pale yellow. The legs, head, and antennae of the second instar larvae are slightly darker than those of the first instar larvae.

Freshly laid egg is hyaline and turns pale yellow when about to mature. The egg is very tiny and measures 0.25 mm long.

Nymph
Adult

Management

ETL- 60 numbers in 12 passes or rolling of the first and second leaves in 10% of seedlings.

Sampling: Wet your palm with water and pass over the foliage in 12 places in the nursery. If thrips population exceeds 60 numbers in 12 passes or if rolling of 1/2 area of first and 2nd leaves in 10% of seedlings is noticed.

Spray any one of the following insecticides:

Phosphamidon 40 SL 50 ml

Monocrotophos 36 SL 40 ml

Flood the infected nursery Spraying of pesticide
 
2. Green leafhopper: Nephotettix virescens
Symptom of damage
  • Yellowing of leaves from tip to downwards.
  • Vector for the diseases viz., Rice tungro virus, rice yellow & transitory yellowing cause direct damage to the rice plant
  • feed on rice by sucking the plant sap
  • plugging the vascular bundles with stylet sheaths
  • symptoms of various viral diseases
    RTV- Damage Virus particles under electron microscope

Identification of insect pest 

The adult leafhopper is slender and green. Its head is rounded or pointed with or without black bands. Its vertex is with or without an anterior black band and a submarginal black band extending beyond the ocelli to the inner margins of the eyes. The face is green.

Its pronotum is smooth with or without a black anterior margin. A pair of black spots is either present or absent on the forewings. The insect is 4.2-4.3 mm.

Neonate nymph measures 0.9 mm long. It is transparent, white, and shiny. As it matures, it turns yellowish to green with or without black markings on the head, thorax, and abdomen.

A mature nymph is 3.1 mm long. The shape of the nymph is similar to that of the adult except that the nymph is smaller and is wingless.

As the insect matures, blackish markings on the abdomen become more prominent as well as the blackish band on the last abdominal segment.

Eggs are white and elongate or cigar-shaped. Individual eggs are arranged neatly and lie parallel to each other in each egg batch. A single egg measures 0.9 - 0.8 mm. Upon maturation, the egg turns brownish and develops red eyes.

 

Adult - Green leaf hopper

Management

ETL- 60/25 net sweeps or 5/hill at vegetative stage or 10/hill at flowering or 2/hill in tungro endemic area

Sampling: Take 25 net sweepings in the nursery area. If the population exceeds 60 for 25 sweepings or 20/m2 by actual counting,

Nursery should not be located near the street lamps

Spray any one of the following insecticides:

  • Phosphamidon 40 SL 50 ml
  • Phosalone 35 EC 120 ml

Maintain 2.5 cm of water in the nursery and broadcast anyone of the following in 20 cents

  • Carbofuran 3 G 3.5 kg
  • Phorate 10 G 1.0 kg

 

Use resistant variety - CR 1009 Nursery should not be located near the street lamps

 

 
3.Rice case worm: Nymphula depunctalis 
Symptom of damage
  • Caterpillars feed on green tissues of the leaves and leave become whitish papery
  • Tubular cases around the tillers by cutting the apical portion of leaves
  • Floating of tubular cases on the water
  • cutting off leaf tips to make leaf cases
  • ladder-like appearance of skeletonized leaf tissues
  • leaves cut at right angle as with a pair of scissors

 

White scrapings on leaf due to feeding  Cutting the apical portion of leaves

Identification of insect pest

  • Larva - Pale translucent green with orange head.It has filamentous gills on the sides of the body
  • Adult:  Moth is delicate white moth with pale brown wavy markings

The adult moth is about 5 mm long. It is bright white with light brown and black spots.

First instar larva is pale cream with light yellow head. It is 1.2 mm long. With age, the larva turns greenish. It has branched and thread-like gills along the sides of the body.

The pupa is cream in color and about 5.5 mm long. Mature pupa is silvery white.

Individual egg is circular, flattened, and measures 0.5 mm in diameter. It is light yellow and has a smooth surface. Mature eggs are darker and develop two purplish dots.

Larva Adult

Management

  • Mix 250 ml of kerosene to the standing water
  • Dislodge the cases by passing a rope and drain water
  • Collect the cases and destroy

Spray any one of the following insecticides:

  • Monocrotophos 36 SL 40 ml
  • Quinalphos 25 EC 80 ml.
Pass the rope to dislodge casetubes and eggs Hydrophilid beetle preys caseworm larva
 
4.Paddy stemborer: Scirpophaga incertulas

Symptom of damage

  • Presence of brown coloured egg mass near leaf tip.
  • Caterpillar bore into central shoot of paddy seedling and tiller
  • Causes drying of the central shoot known as“dead heart”
  • Grown up plant whole panicle becomes dried“white ear”.
  • eggs bare or covered with hairs, laid in masses
  • Neonate larvae suspend themselves from leaves by silken threads and blown to other plants to feed
  • Mature larvae bore into the sheath and tiller of the plant
  • presence of frass or fecal matter
Dead heart Egg Mass
Identification of insect pest
  • Egg - Laid in a mass and covered with buff coloured hairs.
  • Larva - Pale yellow with dark brown head.
  • Pupa - White silken cocoon.
  • Adult
  • Female moth - bright yellowish brown fore wings with a black spot possess a tuft of yellow hairs.
  • Male moth - Smaller with pale yellow forewings without black spot.
 
Chilo polichrysus
Larva  
Adult
Chilo suppressalis
Larva  
Adult
Scirpophaga incertulas
Larva  
Adult
Sesamia inference
Larva  
Adult

Management

ETL - 25% of existing ETL for insecticides (2 egg masses/m2) is the action threshold level (ATL) for release of the egg parasitoid, Trichogramma japonicum for the management of the rice yellow stem borer.

25% of ETL adopted for application of insecticide is the ATL for spraying Neem seed kernel extract to control stem borer.

  • Clip the seedling tips before transplanting to eliminate egg masses and collect & destroy the egg masses in main field.
 
5. Swarming caterpillar: Spodoptera mauritia

Symptom of damage

  • Larvae cut the seedlings in large scale
  • Severe infestation - cattle grazing appearance to the field.
  • They feed gregariously and march from field to field.

Identification of insect pest

  • Egg - Laid in masses on leaves and covered with grey hairs
  • Larva - Caterpillar is cylindrical dark to pale green with lateral lines along the body
  • Pupa - Pupates in an earthen cocoon in soil
  • Adult - Moth is medium sized stoutly build. Dark brown with a conspicuous triangular spot on fore wings.
Larva Pupa Adult

Management 

Nursery

  • Drain the water
  • Spray chlorpyriphos 20 EC 80ml + 20 lit of water for 8 cents
  • Flood the nursery to expose the hiding larvae to the surface for birds to pick them up.
  • Kerosenate water during irrigation to suffocate and kill the larvae.
  • Allow ducks into the field to feed on the larvae.
  • Drain water from nursery and spray chlorpyriphos 20 EC 80 ml during late evening. 
    Flood the nursery to expose hiding larva் Apply kerosene to water்
II. Main Field Pests
1.Paddy stemborer: Scirpophaga incertulas

Symptom of damage

  • Presence of brown coloured egg mass near leaf tip.
  • Caterpillar bore into central shoot of paddy seedling and tiller
  • Causes drying of the central shoot known as“dead heart”
  • Grown up plant whole panicle becomes dried“white ear”.
  • Eggs bare or covered with hairs, laid in masses
  • Neonate larvae suspend themselves from leaves by silken threads and blown to other plants to feed
  • Mature larvae bore into the sheath and tiller of the plant presence of frass or fecal matter

 

Dead heart White ear
Identification of insect pest
  • Egg - Laid in a mass and covered with buff coloured hairs.
  • Larva - Pale yellow with dark brown head.
  • Pupa - White silken cocoon.
  • Adult
  • Female moth - bright yellowish brown fore wings with a black spot possess a tuft of yellow hairs.
  • Male moth - Smaller with pale yellow forewings without black spot.
 
Chilo polichrysus
Larva  
Adult
Chilo suppressalis
Larva  
Adult
Scirpophaga incertulas
Larva  
Adult
Sesamia inference
Larva  
Adult

Management

ETL- 2 egg masses/m2 or 10% dead hearts

25% of existing ETL for insecticides (2 egg masses/m2) is the action threshold level (ATL) for release of the egg parasitoid, Trichogramma japonicum for the management of the rice yellow stem borer.

25% of ETL adopted for application of insecticide is the ATL for spraying Neem seed kernel extract to control stem borer.

Spray any one of the following insecticides :

  • Phosalone 35 EC 1500 ml/ha Acephate
  • 75 % SP 666-1000 g/ha Azadirachtin
  • 0.03% 1000 ml/ha Carbofuran 3% CG
  • 25 kg/ha Carbosulfan 6% G 16.7 kg/ha
  • Carbosulfan 25% EC 800-1000 ml/ha
  • CartapHydrochloride 50 % SP 1 kg/ha
  • Chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC 150 ml/ha
  • Chlorantraniliprole 0.4% G 10 kg/ha
  • Chlorpyriphos 20% EC 1.25 l/ha
  • Fipronil 5% SC 1000-1500 g/ha Fipronil
  • 80%WG 50- 62.5 kg/ha Flubendiamide
  • 20% WG 125 g/ha Flubendiamide
  • 39.35% M/M SC 50 g/ha Phosphamidon
  • 40% SL 1250 ml/ha Thiacloprid 21.7%
  • SC 500 g/ha Thiamethoxam 25% WG
  • 100 g/ha Triazophos 40% EC 625-1250
    ml/ha
Use Resistant Varieties - ADT 47 Trichogramma japonicum egg card Egg parasitoid
 
2. Gall midge: Orseolia oryzae

Symptom of damage

  • Maggot feeds at the base of the growing shoot
  • Causing formation of a tube like gall that is similar to “onion leaf” or “Silver-shoot”.
  • Infested tillers produce no panicles.

Identification of insect pest

  • Egg: Reddish, elongate, tubular eggs just near the ligule of the leaf blade
  • Larva: Maggot is pale to red colour feeds inside the gall.
  • Pupa: pupates at the base of the gall and moves to tip of the gall
  • Adult: Adult is orange coloured mosquito like fly
Tuber gall Larva Adult   

Management

ETL- 10% silver shoots

Release Platygaster oryzae parasitised galls at 1 per 10 m2 on 10 days after transplanting (DAT)

• Early ploughing
• Harvest the crop and plough immediately
• Remove the alternate hosts and adjust the time of planting (early)
• Optimum recommendation of potash fertilizer
• Setup light trap and monitor the adult flies
Spray any one of the following insectcides:

  • Phosalone 35 EC 1500 ml/ha
  • Carbosulfan 25% EC 800-1000 ml/ha
  • Chlorpyriphos 20% EC 1250 ml/ha
  • Fipronil 5% SC 1000-1500 g/ha
  • Fipronil 0.3% GR 16670-25000 g/ha
  • Thiamethoxam 25% WG 100 g/ha
Infra red light traps Root dipping of seedlings in chlorpyriphos் Larval parasitoid - Platygaster oryzae
 
3. Swarming caterpillar: Spodoptera mauritia

Symptom of damage

  • Larvae cut the seedlings in large scale
  • Severe infestation - cattle grazing appearance to the field.
  • They feed gregariously and march from field to field.

Identification of insect pest

  • Egg - Laid in masses on leaves and covered with grey hairs
  • Larva - Caterpillar is cylindrical dark to pale green with lateral lines along the body
  • Pupa - Pupates in an earthen cocoon in soil
  • Adult - Moth is medium sized stoutly build.
  • Dark brown with a conspicuous triangular spot on fore wings.
Larva Pupa Adult

Management

  • Spary Chlorpyriphos 20% EC 1250 ml/ha during late evening.
 
4. Rice skipper: Pelopidas mathias

Symptom of damage

  • Edges of the leaves are fastened with webbing.
  • Backward rolling of leaves
  • caterpillar feeds from margin to  inwards
  • Feeding causes removal of leaf tissues
  • Leaf rolling to make a protected chamber
Floating of tubular cases around the tillers Papery white leaves

Identification of insect pest

The adults of the two species are light brown with orange markings and white spots on the wings. They can be distinguished by the pattern of white spots on the wings. One adult has seven C-shaped white spots on the front wing and four white spots on the hind wing.

The other one has four small spherical white spots and two elongated spots on the front wing and the hind wing lacks spots.

The larval bodies of both species are green. They differ in the coloration on the head. One larva has reddish vertical bands at each lateral side of the head and the other one has brown bands that are closer together and W-shaped.

The mature caterpillar measures 50 mm long.

The pupae of both species are light brown or light green. They have pointed ends.

The eggs are white or pale yellow and spherical. They are pearl-like in appearance.

Larva Adult

Management

  • Drain the water and spray chlorpyriphos 20 EC 1250 ml/ha
 
5. Leaf folder (or) leaf roller: Cnaphalocrocis mainsails / Marasmia patnalis

Symptom of damage

  • Leaves fold longitudinally and larvae remains inside.
  • Larvae scrapes the green tissues of the leaves and becomes white and dry.
  • During severe infestation the whole field exhibits scorched appearance.

Identification of insect pest 

  • Egg - Flat, oval in shape and yellowish white in colour.
  • Larva - Greenish translucent.
  • Adult - Moth is brownish with many dark wavy lines in centre and dark band on margin of wings.
Egg Larva Adult white and dried leaves

Management

10% leaf damage at vegetative phase and 5% of flag leaf damage at flowering

Release Trichogramma chilonis for leaffolder thrice @ 1,00,000/ha each if moth activity is noticed when the leaffolder crosses ETL.

  • Keep the bunds clean.
  • Avoid excessive nitrogenous fertilizers.
  • Spray NSKE 5 % or carbaryl 50 WP 1 Kg or chlorpyriphos 20 EC 1250 ml/ ha.
Trichogramma japonicum egg card Keep the bunds clean Set up light trap

Spray any one of the following insectcides:

Phosalone 35 EC 1500 ml/ha CartapHydrochloride 50 % SP 1000 g/ha Triazophos 40% EC 625-1250 ml/ha
Chlorpyriphos 20 EC 1250 ml/ha Chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC 150 g/ha Phosphamidon 40% SL 1250 ml/ha
Carbaryl 50 WP 1.0 kg/ha Chlorantraniliprole 0.4% G 10 kg/ha Flubendiamide 20% WG 125-250 g/ha
Acephate 75 % SP 666-1000 ml/ha Dichlorvos 76%SC 627 ml/ha Thiamethoxam 25% WG 100 kg/ha
Azadirachtin 0.03% 1000 ml/ha Fipronil 80%WG 50-62.5 g/ha  
Carbosulfan 6% G 16.7 kg/ha Flubendiamide 39.35% M/M SC 50 g/ha
 
6. Rice horned caterpillar: Melanitis ismene

Symptom of damage

  • Larva feeds on leaf blades of rice.
  • Leaves are defoliated from the margin or tip irregularly.
Irregular feeding by larva Presence of beetles with scrapping on leaves
Identification of insect pest
  • Egg - White eggs singly on the leaves is green,
  • Larva - Lightly flattened with two red horns processes on the head
  • Two yellow processes in the anal end
  • Pupa - Chrysalis, which suspends from the leaf.
  • Adult - dark brown with large wings having a black yellow eye like spot one on each of the fore wings.
Larva Adult

Management

  • spary the crop with Chlorpyriphos 20 EC 1250 ml/ha
 
7. Yellow hairy caterpillar: Psalis pennatula

Symptoms of damage

  • Caterpillar causes defoliation

 

 

Identification of insect pest  
Larva

  • Caterpillar is yellowish brown with red stripes
  • Orange head and tufts of hairs all over the body.
  • Pupa - pale white cocoon of silk and frass attached to the leaf
  • Adult - Moth is stout with straw coloured forewings.
Catterpillar
Adult

Management 

  • spary the crop with Chlorpyriphos 20 EC 1250 ml/ha
 
8. Grasshopper: Hieroglyphus banian Short horned grasshopper: Oxya  nitidula 

Symptom of damage

  • Irregular feeding on seedlings and leaf blade
  • Cutting of stem at panicle stage
  • Completely defoliate the plants leaving only the mid ribs
Grasshopper Grasshoppers in the field

Identification of insect pest  

  • Adults - Green, larger with transverse black lines on pronotum
Irregular feeding of leaves at the margin
`
Management
  • spary the crop with Chlorpyriphos 20 EC 1250 ml/ha.
 
9. Spiny beetle: Rice hispa, Dicladispa armigera

Symptoms of damage

  • Adults feed on chlorophyll by scraping and causing white parallel streaks
  • White patches along with long axis of leaf.
  • Grubs mine into the leaves and make blister near leaf tips.
  • tunneling through leaf tissue causing irregular translucent white patches that are parallel to the leaf veins
  • damaged areas have white streaks that are parallel to the midrib

 

Identification of insect pest

The adult is blue-black and very shiny. Its wings have many spines. It is 5.5 mm long.

The pupa is brown and round. It is about 4.6 mm long.

The larva or grub is white to pale yellow. A younger grub measures 2.5 mm long and a mature larva is about 5.5 mm long.

Fresh egg is white. It is small and oval. It measures 1-1.5 mm long. With age, it turns yellow. A small dark substance secreted by the female covers each egg.

Larva Adult

Management

Spray any one of the following insectcides:

  • Carbofuran 3% CG 50 kg/ha
  • Chlorpyriphos 20% EC 1250ml/ha
  • Malathion 50%EC 1150 ml/ha
  • Triazophos 40% EC 625-1250 ml/ha

Collect beetle using hand net and destroy
 
10. Whorl maggot: Hydrellia sasakii

Symptom od damage

  • Maggot  feeds on the tender tissue inside the whorl
  • Yellowish white longitudinal marginal blotching with hole
  • Leaves shrivelled plant stunted and maturity delayed.
  • Drooping of young leaves near the tip

 

Identification of the pest

  • Maggot - Yellowish white in colour.
  • Adult - Small dull grey fly
    Yellowish white blotching
    Adult
    Adult: Pupa: Larva

Management

ETL- 25% damaged leaves

  • Remove the alternate hosts and adjust the time of planting (early).
  • Use early maturing varieties.
  • Optimum recommendation of potash fertilizer.

Spray any one of the following :

  • Cartap Hydrochloride 4% G 18750-25000 g/ha
  • Chlorpyriphos 20% EC 1250 ml/ha
  • Fipronil 5% SC 1000-1500 g/ha
  • Fipronil 0.3% GR 16670-25000 g/ha
  • Phosalone 35% EC 1428 ml/ha

Removal of alternate hosts Wasps parasitize maggots
 
11. Green leafhopper: Nephotettix virescens
Symptom of damage
  • Yellowing of leaves from tip to downwards.
  • Vector for the diseases viz., Rice tungro virus, rice yellow & transitory yellowing
  • cause direct damage to the rice plant
  • feed on rice by sucking the plant sap
  • plugging the vascular bundles with stylet sheaths
  • symptoms of various viral diseases
    RTV- Damage
    Virus particles under electron microscope

Identification of insect pest 

The adult leafhopper is slender and green. Its head is rounded or pointed with or without black bands. Its vertex is with or without an anterior black band and a submarginal black band extending beyond the ocelli to the inner margins of the eyes. The face is green. Its pronotum is smooth with or without a black anterior margin. A pair of black spots is either present or absent on the forewings. The insect is 4.2-4.3 mm.

Neonate nymph measures 0.9 mm long. It is transparent, white, and shiny. As it matures, it turns yellowish to green with or without black markings on the head, thorax, and abdomen. A mature nymph is 3.1 mm long. The shape of the nymph is similar to that of the adult except that the nymph is smaller and is wingless.

As the insect matures, blackish markings on the abdomen become more prominent as well as the blackish band on the last abdominal segment.

Eggs are white and elongate or cigar-shaped. Individual eggs are arranged neatly and lie parallel to each other in each egg batch. A single egg measures 0.9 - 0.8 mm. Upon maturation, the egg turns brownish and develops red eyes.

Adult - Green leaf hopper

Management

ETL- 60/25 net sweeps or 5/hill at vegetative stage or 10/hill at flowering or 2/hill in tungro endemic area

Apply any insecticides twice, 15 and 30 days after transplanting

    • Phosphamidon 40 SL 1000 ml /ha
    • Profenophos 50 EC 1000 ml/ha
    • Carbofuran 3 G 17.5 kg/ha
    • Buprofezin 25% SC 800 g/ha
    • Carbosulfan 25% EC 800-1000 ml/ha
    • Fipronil 5% SC 1000-1500 g/ha
    • Imidacloprid 17.8% SL 100 -125 ml/ha
    • Thiamethoxam 25% WG 100 g/ha
    • Triazophos 40% EC 625-1250 ml/ha

The vegetation on the bunds should also be sprayed with the Insecticides

Set up light traps to attract and control the leafhopper vectors as well as to monitor the population.

Kill the leafhoppers attracted to light trap by spraying any one of the insecticides every morning.

Use resistant variety - CR 1009 Apply neem cake to nursery Set up light trap
 
12. Brown plant leafhopper: Nilaparvata lugens

Symptoms of damage

  • Nymphs and adults congregate at the base of the plant above the water level
  • Affected plant dries up and gives a scorched appearance called “hopper burn”.
  • Circular patches of drying and lodging of matured plant
  • It is vector of grassy stunt, ragged stunt and wilted stunt diseases
  • ovipositional marks exposing the plant to fungal and bacterial infections
  • ragged stunt or grassy stunt virus disease plant may be observed
Identification of insect pest
  • BPH adult is brownish black with yellowish brown body. It has a distinct white band on its mesonotum and dark brown outer sides.

  • The adults exist in two forms, macropterous and brachypterous. Macropterous adults or long-winged have normal front and hind wings, whereas brachypterous forms or the short-winged have reduced hind wings. A prominent tibial spur is present on the third leg.

 

Hopper burn
Adult

Management

ETL -1 hopper/ tiller in the absence of predatory spider and 2 hoppers /tiller
when spider is present at 1/hill.

  • Avoid excessive use of nitrogen
  • Control irrigation by intermittent draining
  • Set up light traps during night or yellow pan traps during day time
  • Drain the water before use of insecticides and direct the spray towards the base of the plants.

Apply any one of the following insectcides:

  • Phosalone 35 EC 1500 ml/ha
  • Carbaryl 10 D 25 kg/ha
  • Methyl demeton 25 EC 1000 ml/ha
  • Chlorpyriphos 20 EC 1250 ml/ha
  • Acephate 75 % SP 666-1000 g/ha
  • Azadirachtin 0.03% 1000 ml/ha
  • Neem oil 3% 15 lit/ha
  • Buprofezin 25% SC 800 ml/ha
  • Carbosulfan 25 EC 800-1000 ml/ha
  • Chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC 150 g/ha
  • Chlorantraniliprole 0.4% G 10 kg/ha
  • Dichlorvos 76%SC 470 ml/ha
  • Fenoucarb (BPMC) 50% EC 500-1500 ml/ha
  • Fipronil 5% SC 1000-1500 ml/ha
  • Fipronil 0.3% GR 16670-25000 g/ha
  • Imidacloprid 70% WG 30-35 kg/ha
  • Imidacloprid 17.8 SL 100-125 ml/ha
  • Phosphamidon 875 ml/ha
  • Triazophos 40% EC 625-1250 ml/ha
Provide rogue spacing of 30 cm Spray Neem Oil
Use yellow pan trap during day time Incandescent light trap

 

 
13. White backed plant hopper: Sogatella furcifera

Symptom od damage

  • Suck the sap and cause stunted growth.
  • “Hopper burn” is caused in irregular patches.
  • ovipositional marks exposing the plant to fungal and bacterial infections
  • ragged stunt or grassy stunt virus disease plant may be observed
Circular dry patches in field Completely desapped plant

Identification of insect pest 

WBPH adult is brownish black with a yellowish brown body. It has very distinct white band on its mesonotum with dark brown outer sides. It has pale yellow to light brown cheeks. The adult exhibits two body forms.

The males are all macropterous or long-winged and the females are both macropterous and brachypterous or short-winged. The adult is 2.6-2.9 mm long. The apex of its front wing has an unbranched band. The hind tibia is noticeable because of its distinct movable spur.

Neonate nymph is white to light yellow and 0.8 mm long. It has pink to red eyes. With age, the nymph becomes grayish with white markings on the thorax and abdomen of the creamy body. The mature nymph is 2.1 mm long. A distinct white band on its thorax starts to appear.

Newly laid eggs are creamy white. They are elongate and very curved. A single egg measures 0.9 mm long and 0.2 mm wide. With age, the eggs become darker and develop two distinct spots that represent the eyes of the developing hopper.

Nymph and Adult Adult

Management

Apply any one of the following insectcides

    Phosphamidon 40 SL 1000 ml/ha. Fipronil 0.3% GR 16670-25000 g/ha
    Azadirachtin 0.03% 1000 ml/ha Imidacloprid 70% WG 30-35 kg/ha
    Buprofezin 25% SC 800 ml/ha Imidacloprid 17.8 SL 100-125 ml/ha
    Carbosulfan 25 EC 800-1000 ml/ha Phosalone 1428 ml/ha
    Chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC 150 g/ha Phosphomidon 875 ml/ha
    Dichlorvos 76%SC 470 ml/ha Quinalphos 25 EC 1500 ml/ha
    Fipronil 5% SC 1000-1500 ml/ha Triazophos 40% EC 625-1250 ml/ha
 
14. Mealybug: Brevennia rehi

Symptom od damage

  • Large number of insects remains in leaf sheath and suck the sap.
  • Plants become week, yellowish and very much stunted in circular patches.
  • Presence of white waxy fluff in leaf sheaths

 

 

Symptom of Mealybug Infestation

Identification of insect pest

  • The pale yellowish male adults have a single pair of wings and a waxy style-like process at the end of the abdomen.
  • The first and middle legs of the male are approximately equal, whereas the last or third legs are longer. The body is 0.7-0.9 mm long.
  • Adult females are oblong and wingless. They are reddish white and soft-bodied. Their body is covered with a distinct waxy or powdery coating.
  • They measure about 1.2-3.0 mm long and 0.5-1.5 mm wide. They resemble woodlice in shape.
  • The first instar nymphs or crawlers measure 0.1-0.2 mm wide and 0.3-0.5 mm long. Mature crawlers are 3-4 mm long.
Mealybug

Management

  • Remove the grasses and trim the bunds during the main field preparation before transplanting.
  • Remove and destroy the affected plants.
  • Spraying of Buprofezin (25 SC) @ 200 ml/ 200 lit of water for 1 acre (or)
  • Spraying of Thiomethoxum (20 WDG) @ 100 g/ 200 lit of water for 1 acre (or)
  • Spraying of Dimethoate (30 EC ) 400 ml along with Azardiractin 1000PPM
  • can be used for controlling mealy bug infestation
 
15. Rice earhead bug: Leptocorisa acuta

Symptoms of damage

  • Sucking the sap from individual grains, which are in milky stage.
  • Individual grains become chaffy
  • Black spots on the grains at the site of feeding puncture.
  • Buggy odour in rice field during milky stage

Identification of insect pest 

  • Eggs: Dark, reddish brown and  laid in rows of 10-15 on the leaves (or) panicles
  • Nymphs: Green to brown.
  • Adults: Slender with long legs and antennae.
  • They are brownish green in colourwhile disturbing it emittes stink odour

Adult feeding on the grains

Infected Grains Feeding injuries and 
spots on grains

Management

ETL- 5 bugs/100 earheads at flowering and 16 bugs/100 earheads from milky stage to grain maturity

Dust any one of the following at 25 kg/ha twice, the first during
flowering and second a week later:

  • Quinalphos 1.5 D
  • Methyl parathion 2% DP 25 kg/ha
  • KKM 10 D
  • The new KKM dust formulation consists of 10% of Acorus calamus
    rhizome powder and 90% of flyash which is a waste product from Thermal
    Power Station. This dust formulation repels the rice earhead bug.

Spray any one of the following twice as above

  • Malathion 50 EC 500 ml/ha
  • Neem seed kernel extract 5% 25 kg/ha
  • Notchi or Ipomoea or Prosopis leaf extract 10%
 
16. Thrips: Stenchaetothrips biformis
Symptoms of damage
  • Laceration of  the tender leaves and suck the plant sap
  • Yellow (or) silvery streaks on the leaves of young seedlings
  • Terminal rolling and drying of leaves from tip to base
  • It causes damage both in nursery and main field
  • leaf shows discoloration and rolling
  • damaged leaves visible as silvery streaks
Initial - inward rolling of Leaves

Identification of insect pest 

  • The adult has a slender body. It is dark brown and 1-2 mm long. It exists in two forms, winged or wingless. The winged form has two pairs of elongated narrow wings that are fringed with long hairs.
  • The pupa has long wing pads that reach two-thirds the length of the abdomen. It also has four pointed processes on the ninth abdominal tergite. The prepupa is brown. Four pointed processes are present on the hind margin of the ninth abdominal tergite.

 

  • Neonate larvae are transparent and towards the second molting, they turn to pale yellow. The legs, head, and antennae of the second instar larvae are slightly darker than those of the first instar larvae.
  • Freshly laid egg is hyaline and turns pale yellow when about to mature. The egg is very tiny and measures 0.25 mm long.

 

Nymph
Adult

Management

ETL- 60 numbers in 12 passes or rolling of the first and second leaves in 10% of seedlings.

Spray any one of the following insectcides:

  • Phosphamidon 40 SL 600 ml /ha
  • Azadirachtin 0.15% W/W 1500-2500 g/ha
  • Thiamethoxam 25% WG 100 g/ha
Spraying of pesticide
Updated on April 9, .2014


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