TNAU Agritech Portal
  Home | About Us | Success Stories | Farmers Association | Farmers' Innovation | Publications | FAQs | Contact

Crop Protection :: Pests of Mango

Common name: Mango

S.N: Mangifera indica

Family: Anacardiaceae

Major pests

Major pests of mango

I. Borers
Mango stem borer, Batocera rufomaculata Symptoms Identification Management
Bark borer, Indarbela tetraonis Symptoms Identification Management
Shoot borer, Clumetia transversa Symptoms Identification Management
II. Inflorensence and fruit feeders
Mango hoppers, Idioscopus niveoparsus
I. clypealis 
Amirtodus atkinsoni
Symptoms Identification Management
Inflorescence midge, Dasineura amaramanjarae Symptoms Identification Management
Aphid, Toxoptera odinae Symptoms Identification Management
Flower webberEublemma versicolor Symptoms Identification Management
Loopers, Thalassodes quadraria, Chloroclystis sp Symptoms Identification Management
Bud mite, Aceria mangiferae Symptoms Identification Management
Fruit fly, Bactrocera (Dacus) dorsalis Symptoms Identification Management
Mango nut weevil, Sternochaetus mangiferae Symptoms Identification Management
III. Leaf feeders
Shoot webber: Orthaga exvinacea Symptoms Identification Managemet
Leaf gall midges , Amradiplosis amraemyia Symptoms Identification Management
Leaf twisting weevil, Apoderus tranquebaricus Symptoms Identification Management
Hairy caterpillars Euproctis fraterna, Prothesiascintillans   Symptoms Identification Management
IV. Sap feeders
Scales, Chionaspis vitis Symptoms Identification Management
Gaint mealybug, Drosicha mangiferae Symptoms Identification Management
Red ant, Oecophylla smaradina Symptoms Identification Management

A. Borers
1. Mango stem borerBatocera rufomaculata 
Symptoms of damage

  • Grub tunnels in the sapwood on the trunk or branches
  • Grub bore into the sap wood and macking irregular tunnels.
  • Feeding the vascular tissues
  • interruption of nutrient and water transport on the tissue
  • Drying of terminal shoot in early stage
  • Frass comes out from several points and some times sap oozes out of the holes
  • Wilting of branches or entire tree
http://www.zin.ru/Animalia/Coleoptera/images/foto/I_Zaitsev_Batocera.jpg

Identification of pest

  • Grub - Linear, fleshy, apodous
  • Adult - Grayish beetle with two pink dots and lateral spine     

Management

  • Remove and destroy dead and severely affected branches of the tree
  • Remove alternate host, silk cotton and other hosts
  • Grow tolerant mango varieties viz., Neelam, Humayudin.
  • Swab Coal tar + Kerosene @ 1:2 or Carbaryl 50 WP 20 g / l (basal portion of the trunk - 3 feet height) after scraping the loose bark to prevent oviposition by adult beetles.
  • Padding with monocrotophos 36 WSC 10 ml in 2.5 cm /tree soaked in absorbent cotton.
  • If infestations are severe then apply the copper oxychloride paste on the trunk of the tree.
  • Hook out the grub from the bore hole - apply monocrotophos 36 WSC 10 to 20 ml/ hole
  • One celphos tablet (3 g aluminum phosphide) per hole
  • Apply carbofuran 3G 5 g per hole and plug with mud.

Top

2. Bark borerIndarbela tetraonis 
Symptoms of damage
  • Young trees may succumb to the attack.
  • Caterpillars bore into the trunk or junction of branches
  • Caterpillars remain hidden in the tunnel during day time and come out at night, feed on the bark.
  • Presence of gallery made out of silk and frass

Top

Identification of pest
  • Larva - Stout and dirty brown in colour
  • Adult
  • Stout yellowish –brown moth with brown wavy markings on the forewings
  • Hind wings is white colour.
  • Males are smaller than the females.

Top

Management
  • Remove and destroy dead and severely affected branches of the tree
  • Remove alternate host, silk cotton and other hosts
  • Grow tolerant mango varieties viz., Neelam, Humayudin.
  • Swab Coal tar + Kerosene @ 1:2 or Carbaryl 50 WP 20 g / l (basal portion of the trunk - 3 feet height)
after scraping the loose bark to prevent oviposition by adult beetles.
  • Padding with monocrotophos 36 WSC 10 ml in 2.5 cm /tree soaked in absorbent cotton.
  • If infestations are severe then apply the copper oxychloride paste on the trunk of the tree.
  • Hook out the grub from the bore hole - apply monocrotophos 36 WSC 10 to 20 ml/ hole
  • One celphos tablet (3 g aluminum phosphide) per hole
  • Apply carbofuran 3G 5 g per hole and plug with mud.

Top

3. Shoot borerClumetia transversa 
Symptoms of damage
  • Terminal shoots show tunnel from top to down wards.
  • Stunting of seedlings with terminal bunchy appearance.     

Top

Identification of pest:
  • Larva - Caterpillar is dark pink with dark brown prothroacic shield.
  • Adult - Adult is greyish moth with grey wings having wavy lines.

Top

Management
  • Field sanitation
  • Collect and destroy the infested plant parts
  • Summer ploughing to expose the pupae
  • Spray carbaryl 50WP 0.1%.

Top

B. INFLORESCENCE AND FRUIT FEEDERS
4. Mango hoppers,   Idioscopus niveoparsus,I. clypealis, Amirtodus atkinsoni

Symptoms of damage

  • Nymphs and adults suck the sap of inflorescence
  • Withering
  • Shedding of flower buds and flowers
  • Presence of honey dew secrecation on lower leaves and development of sooty mould.
  • Clicking sound - movement of jassids amidst leaves.
  • Hoppers provide shelter in the cracks and crevices of the barks on the tree

Top

Identification of pest

  • Nymph - Nymphs pale yellow, very active and hide in lower shoots or in cracks in the barks.
  • The insect appears in February when mango trees come to flowering.
  • Adult
    • a. Idioscopus niveoparsus; Adults: dark with wavy lines on wings and three spots on scutellum.
    • b. I. clypealis; Adults: small, light brown with dark spots on the vertex and two spots on scutellum.
    • c. Amirtodus atkinsoni; Adults: large, light brown with two spots on scutellum.

Top 

MANAGEMENT
  • Avoid close planting, as the incidence very severe in overcrowded orchards.
  • Orchards must be kept clean by ploughing and removal of weeds.
  • Spray two rounds of acephate 75 SP@ 1g/lit or phosalone 35 EC@ 1.5 ml/li
    OR
  • Spray two rounds of imidacloprid 0.2ml/lit or phosphamidon 40SL 2 ml/lit of water.
  • First spray at the time of panicle emergence , second spray two weeks after first spray.
  • Wettable sulphur @ 2 g/lit may be sprayed after spraying carbaryl to avoid mite resurgence.
  • The mixture toxaphene with sulphur (1:1) have been reported to be effective against pest.  
  • Neem oil 5 ml/lit of water can be mixed with any insecticides
  • Spray 3 per cent neem oil or neem seed kernel powder extract 5 per cent

Top

5Inflorescence midge 
Symptoms of damage
  • Maggots attack the inflorescence stalk, flowers and small developing fruits
  • Maggot bore into the bud and feeds on inner content
  • Buds fail to open and drop down
Identification of pest
  • Larva - A maggot light yellowish colour and moults three times.
  • Adult

                    i) a. Dasineura amaramanjarae: Orange red
ii) b. Erosomyia indica: Yellowish fly
iii) c. Procystiphora mangiferae: Light orange fly

Management

  • Remove and destroy affected flowers and tender shoots
  • Spray dimethoate 30 EC @ 0.06%, methyl demeton 25 EC @0.05%

Top

6. Aphid, Toxoptera odinae 
Symptoms of damage  
  • Reddish brown aphids suck the sap from leaves, petiole and fruits
  • Shedding of flowers.
Management
  • Collect and destroy the damaged plant parts along with nymphs and adults
  • Dimethoate 30 EC or methyldemeton 25 EC 1 ml/l
  • Release coccinelid predators

Top

7. Flower webber, Eublemma versicolor 
Symptoms of damage 
  • Webbing of flowers and bore holes in inflorescence stalk.
Identification of pest
  • Larva - Greenish yellow with light brown head.
  • Adult - Moth has purplish pink or light orange wings.
Management
  • Spray phosalone 35 EC 2ml/lit for effective control

Top

8. Loopers, Thalassodes quadraria, Chloroclystis sp 
Symptoms of damage
  • Webbed inflorescence and subsequent drying of inflorescence.

Top

Identification of pest

a. Thalassodes quadraria:

  • Grey greenish looper.
  • Adult: green with angular wings

b. Chloroclystis sp:

  • Brownish looper .
  • Adult: Greyish moth with wavy lines
Management
  • Collect and destroy the damaged leaves
  • Use light trap 1/ha to attract and kill the adults
  • Spray malathion 50 EC 2ml/lit
9. Bud miteAceria mangiferae 
Symptoms of damage
  • Malformed leaves
  • Buds giving bunchy top appearance
  • Leading to bud necrosis. Normally occurs during summer.
Management
  • Dicofol 18.5 EC 2.5ml/lit or wettable sulphur 50WP 2 g /lit

Top

10. Fruit flyBactrocera (Dacus) dorsalis 
Symptoms of damage
  • Maggot bore into semi-ripen fruits with decayed spots and dropping of fruits.
  • Oozing of fluid
  • Brownish rotten patches on fruits.
Maggots of fruit fly dropping out of mango fruit
Mango fruit fly

Top

Identification of pest

  • Larva - Yellowish apodous maggots.
  • Adult - Light brown with transparent wing
Maggot 
Adult
 

Management               

  • Collect fallen infested fruits and dispose them by dumping in a pit
  • Provide summer ploughing to expose the pupa
  • Monitor the activity of flies with methyl eugenol sex lure traps.
  • Bait spray - combing any one of the insecticides and molasses or jaggery 10 g/l,
    • fenthion 100EC 1ml/l,
    • malathion 50EC 2 ml/l,
    • dimethoate 30 EC 1 ml/l,
    • carbaryl 50 WP 4 g/l. two rounds at 2 weeks interval before ripening of fruits.
  • Prepare bait with methyl eugenol 1% solution mixed with malathion 0.1%.
  • Take 10 ml of this mixture per trap and keep them in 25 different places in one hectare
  • Spray fenthion 100 EC 2 ml/ lit or malathion 50 EC 2ml/lit.
Biological control
  • Field release of natural enemies Opius compensates and Spalangia philippines

Top

11. Mango nut weevilSternochaetus mangiferae

Symtom
Grub
Grub on mango
Adult on Mango


Symptoms of damage

  • Grub makes zigzag tunnels in pulp
  • Eats unripe tissue and bore into cotyledons
  • Fruit dropping at marble stage
  • oviposition injuries on marble sized fruits.
  • Tunnelled cotyledons in mature fruit by grubs.

Identification of pest

  • Grub - A full grown grub is legless, fleshly and yellow with dark head.
  • Dark weevils after emergence remain inactive, hidden in the cracks and crevices on the trunk
  • Adult - Adult is dark brown with a short snout.

Management

  • Collect and destroy the fallen fruits
  • Spray application of fenthion 100EC 1ml/l; (first at marble stage of the fruit second at 15 days interval).
  • During non flowering season direct spray towards the base of the trunk                
C. LEAF FEEDERS
12. Shoot webber: Orthaga exvinacea
Symptoms of damage
  • Caterpillar webbing of terminal leaves and scrapes the chlorophyll content
  • Drying up plants.
Tip dry     
Inflorescence entangled
Nest of dried leaves

Identification of pest

  • Larva - Pale greenish with brown head and prothroacic shield.
  • Adult - Brown moth with wavy lines on fore wings.
Management
  • Remove and destroy the webbed leaves along with larva and pupa
  • Spray carbaryl at 50 WP @ 0.1%          
  • Encourage the activity of predators, carabid beetle Parena lacticincta, reduvid Oecama sp

Top

13. Leaf gall midges

a. Amradiplosis amraemyia
b. A. brunneigallicola
c. A. viridigallicola
d. Alassomyia tennuspatha

Symptoms of damage

  • Presence of galls on leaves.

Identification of pest

  • Maggots – are yellowish
  • Adult - Tiny mosquito like.

Management

  • Spray dimethoate 30 EC or methyldemeton 25 EC @ 2ml/lit.

Top

14. Leaf twisting weevilApoderus tranquebaricus 
Symptoms of damage

  • Twisting, rolling and drying of terminal leaves.

Identification of pest

  • Grub: yellowish
  • Adult: Reddish brown weevil with long snout

Management

  • Spray monocrotophos 36WSC 1.5 ml.

Top

15. Hairy caterpillars,   Euproctis fraterna   , Prothesia scintillans              

Symptoms of damage 
  • Defoliation.

Identification of the pest

Euproctis fraterna
  • Larva - yellowish with brown head, yellowish stripe with central red line
  • black hairs dorsally on first three segments
  • Adult - yellowish moth with black spots.
Prothesia scintillans
  • Larva - Reddish with red head surrounded by whitish hairs
  •  Adult - yellowish moth with transverse line on the fore wings.

Management

  • Collect and destroy egg masses and caterpillars
  • Use burning torch to kill the congregating larvae
  • Use light trap to attract and kill the adults
  • Spray chlorpyriphos 20 EC or quinalphos 25 EC 2ml/lit

Top

16. Scales,

a. Chionaspis vitis- White elongate hard scale
b. Chloropulvinaria psidii- Females with white ovisac

Symptoms of damage

  • Both nymphs and adults desap the leaves cause yellowing.

Identification of pest

  • Adult - White, elongate, hard scale

Management

  • Pruning of infested branches and burning
  • Dimethoate or phosphomidon are effective

17Gaint mealybugDrosicha mangiferae

Symptoms of damage

  • Drying of leaves and inflorescence
  • Presence of pinkish nymphs and adult mealy bugs on fruit and fruit stalk.

Identification of pest           

  • Pinkish nymph
Infestation on fruit
 

Management

  • Remove weeds like Clerodendrum inflortunatum and grasses by ploughing during June-July.
  • Band the trees with 20 cm wide alkalthene of polythene (400 gauge) in the middle of December

(50 cm above the ground level and just below the junction of branching).

  • Stem with jute thread and apply a little mud of fruit tree grease on the lower edge of the band.
  • If necessary apply methyl parathion1ml/lit, chlopyriphos 20EC 2.5 ml/l
  • Release of Australian ladybird beetle, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri @ 10/tree

Top

18.Red antOecophylla smaradina

Symptoms of damage

  • Webbed of leaves with ants forming nests.

Identification of pest

  • Reddish ant, queen – olive green in colour

Top

Management
  • Nests should be removed and destroyed mechanically or by spraying any of the contact insecticides
  • Monocrotophos 2ml/lit or DDPV 100EC 1ml/lit 

Top

 


Home | About Us | Success Stories | Farmers Association | Publications | FAQs | Site Map | Disclaimer | Contact Us

© 2013 TNAU. All Rights Reserved.