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TNAU Agritech Portal :: Crop Protection
Important pests of Groundnut

1. Red Hairy caterpillars: Amsacta albistriga, A. moorei

Symptoms of damage

  • Caterpillars cause defoliation of the crop- all the leaves eaten away leaving the main stem alone.

Identification of the pest

  • Larvae: Hairy caterpillar reddish brown with black band on either end having long reddish brown hairs all over the body.
  • Adult: Moth with white wings.
  • Forewing - white with brownish streak all over and yellowish  streak along the anterior margin and head
  • Hind wing – white with black marking

A .moorei  

  • Forewing - white with brownish streak all over and reddish streak along the anterior margin and head 
http://www.jnkvv.nic.in/IPM%20Project/insects/Amsacta-albistriga-adult.jpg
http://www.icrisat.org/satrends/mar2006_files/Redcaterpillar_250by210.jpg
  Larva feeding

Management

  • Dig out and destroy the pupae from the field bunds and shady spots prior to summer rains.
  • Set up 3 to 4 light traps and bonfires immediately after receipt of rains, after sowing in the rainfed season to attract and kill the moths and also to know brood emergence.
  • Collect and destroy gregarious, early instar larvae on lace-like leaves of intercrops such as redgram and cowpea.
  • Collect and destroy egg masses in the cropped area.Avoid migration of larvae by digging a trench 30 cm deep and 25 cm wide with perpendicular sides around the infested fields.
  • Apply any one of the following insecticides at 25 kg/ha (for young caterpillars) :
  • Phosalone 35 EC 750 ml/ha in 375 l of water.
  • Dichlorvos 76 EC 627 ml/ha

Virus multiplication

Collect medium sized larvae of Amsacta albistriga from the field and starve them over night. Make a pure suspension of virus with the nucleus culture, in water. Dip Calotropis leaves in virus suspension, shade dry and feed them to starved larvae for 1 or 2 days. From third
day, normal, untreated leaves can be fed to these larvae. From 5th day, the treated larvae will start dying. Virus infected larvae can be diagnosed by their pinkish ventral surface, their head hanging downwards with white body contents oozing out through ruptured
body wall in the late stage. Collect the dying larvae, keep in fresh potable water for a few days, grind the larvae and filter through several layers of fine cloth and collect filtrate (Crude virus suspension). Use virus suspension obtained from 750 medium sized larvae for spraying one hectare along with a sticker 250 ml or Triton in 350 l of water. Use potable water for mixing and spray in the evening hours.

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2. Groundnut leaf miner:   Aproaerema modicella

Symptoms of damage

  • Young larvae initially mine into the leaflets, feed on the mesophyll and form small brown blotches on the leaf.
  • Later stages larvae web the leaflets together and feed on them, remaining within the folds.
  • Severely attacked field looks "burnt" from a distance.

Identification of the pest

  • Eggs - Shiny white and are laid singly on the underside of the leaflets.
  • Larvae - Green in colour with dark head and prothroax
  • Adult - Brownish grey moth, 6 mm long with 10 mm wing spanForewings with white spot on the costal margin
DSC00619
Leaf miner larva inside the web DSC00619 DSC00594

Management

ETL: 1 larvae /meter row

  • Set up light traps between 8 and 11 p.m at ground level

Apply anyone of the following insecticides

  • Dimethiate 30 EC 660 ml/ha
  • Malathion 50 EC 1.25 l/ha
  • Methyl demeton 25% EC 1000 ml/ha
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3. Bihar hairy caterpillar: Spilosoma (Diacrisia) obliqua

Symptoms of damage

  • Young larvae feed gregariously mostly on the under surface of the leaves.
  • Feed on leaves and cause loss by way of defoliation.
  • In severe cases only stems are left behind.

Identification of the pest

  • Eggs: Laid in clusters of 50-100, on the lower side of leaves.
  • Larva: Orange coloured with broad transverse band with tufts of yellow hairs that are dark at both ends
  • Pupa:  Forms a thin silken cocoon by interwoven shed hairs of the larvae.             
  • Adult: Crimson coloured moth with black dots and a red abdomen. Pinkish wings with numerous black spots

Management

  • Pre-monsoon deep ploughing (two/three times) will expose the hibernating pupae to sunlight and predatory birds.
  • Removal and destruction of alternate wild hosts and weeds which harbour the hairy caterpillars.
  • Grow trap crops like cowpea, castor and jatropha on field bunds to attract the caterpillars.
  • Irrigate once to avoid prolonged mid season drought to prevent pre-harvest infestation.
  • Setting up bonfires on field bunds during night.
  • Mass collection and destruction of eggs and just emerged caterpillars.
  • Place the twigs and leaves of calotropis, jatropha and papaya around the field to trap grown up caterpillars and destruction.
  • Conserve the bio control population of spiders, long horned grasshoppers, preying mantids, robber fly, ants, green lace wing, damsel flies/dragon flies, flower bugs, shield bugs, lady bird beetles, ground beetle, predatory cricket, braconids, trichogrammatids, NPV, green muscardine fungus
  • Use of NPV (nuclear polyhedrosis virus) on cloudy days at 500 LE/ha will be effective. Spraying of Bacillus thuringiensis is also advocated at 1 kg/ha where mulberry is not grown.
  • Apply safe chemical insecticides at recommended doses only if the insect population crosses the ETL.
  • Spraying of quinalphos 25 EC (2 ml/lit) or chlorpyriphos 20 EC (2.5 ml/lit) or Dichlorvos 76% EC (2.0 ml/lit) recommended when the caterpillars are younger.
Bihar hairy caterpillar larvae
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4. Gram pod borer: Helicoverpa armigera

Symptoms of damage

  • Larvae feed on the foliage, prefers flowers and buds.
  • When tender leaf buds are eaten symmetrical holes or cuttings can be seen upon unfolding of leaflets.
Identification of the pest
  • Eggs: Spherical in shape and creamy white in colour, present singly
  • Larva: Shows colour variation from greenish to brown. It has dark brown grey lines on the body with lateral white lines and also has dark and pale bands.
  • Pupa: Brown in colour, occurs in soil, leaf, pod and crop debris

Adult

  • Light pale brownish yellow stout moth
  • Forewings – olive green to pale brown with a dark brown circular spot in the centre
  • Hind wings-   are pale smoky white with a broad blackish outer margin.
http://www.jnkvv.nic.in/IPM%20Project/groundnut/Larva.jpg

Management

  • Deep summer ploughing.
  • Intercrop one rows of red gram for every 5 or 6 rows
  • Install pheromone trap @ 5/ha
  • Use Trichogramma chilonis @ 1 lakh/ha or Chrysoperla carnea @ 50000/ha at 40 and 50 days after sowing of groundnut can effectively check the pest.
  • Apply HaNPV @ 250 LE/ha or B.t (Bacillus thuringiensis) 1 kg/ha or 5% NSKE for monitoring eggs and early instar larvae.
  • Conserve the bio control population of spiders, long horned grasshoppers, preying mantids, robber fly, ants, green lace wing, damsel flies/dragon flies, flower bugs, shield bugs, lady bird beetles, ground beetle, predatory cricket, braconids, trichogrammatids, NPV, green muscardine fungus .
  • spray any one of the following insecticide : quinolphos 2ml or chloropyriphos 3ml or Imidacloprid 2ml /lit of water
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5. Tobacco caterpillar: Spodoptera litura

Symptoms of damage

  • Freshly hatched larvae feed gregariously, scraping the chlorophyll, soon disperse.
  • Sometimes the feeding is so heavy that only petioles and branches are left behind.
Identification of the pest
  • Egg: Egg masses appear golden brown
Larva
  • Pale greenish with dark marking.
  • Gregarious in the early stages

Adult

  • Forewings – brown colour with wavy white marking
  • Hind wings- white colour with a brown patch along the margin
Tobacco caterpillar larva on groundnut leaves

Management

  • ETL: 8 egg masses/100 m row
  • Grow castor as border or intercrop in groundnut fields to serve as
    indicator or trap crop.
  • Monitor the emergence of adult moths by setting up light and
    pheromone traps.
  • Collect egg masses and destroy.
  • Collect the gregarious larvae and destroy them as soon as the
    early symptoms of lace-like leaves appear on castor, cowpea and
    groundnut.

Apply anyone of the following insecticides to control the early
instar (1st to 3rd instar) larvae

  • Carbaryl 50 WP 2.0 kg/ha
  • Quinalphos 25 EC 750 ml/ha
  • Dichlorvos 76 WSC 750 ml/ha
  • Diflubenzuron 25 WP 300-400g/ha

Spray any one of the following insecticides to control the 4th to
6th instar larvae :

  • Neem oil (2%) 20 lit /ha
  • Prepare a bait with the following materials to cover one ha. Rice bran
    12.5 kg; Molasses or brown sugar 1.25 kg or carbaryl 50 WP 1.25 kg.
    Mix the ingredients to obtain a homogeneous mixture, Sprinkle water
    (7 lit.) gradually and bring the bait to a dough consistency. Distribute
    the above bait on the soil, around the field and inside in the evening
    hours immediately after preparation.
  • Apply Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus 1.5 x 1012 POBs/ha with crude
    sugar 2.5 kg/ha and Teepol 250 ml/ ha. Methods of mass culturing
    and application are the same as for Amsacta NPV.
  • Intercrop lab lab with groundnut 1:4 ratio
  • Spray any one of the following insecticides:
  • Imidacloprid 17.8% SL 100 -125 ml/ha
  • Quinalphos 25%EC 1400 ml/ha
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6. Groundnut bud borer: Anarsia ephippias

Symptoms of damage

  •  The larva bores into the terminal buds and shoots and tip of the stem.
  •  The tender leaflets emerging from central spindle will show shot-hole symptoms initially.
  •  In severe infestation emerging leaflets will have only the midribs or several oblong feeding holes.
Identification of the pest
  • Larvae:  Chocolate brown in color and 10-15 mm long.

Management

  • Neem oil 3 per cent and leaf extract of Vitex negumdo (notchi) 5 per cent are effective against this pest.
  • Spraying of monocrotophos 36 WSC 0.5 per cent (1.5 ml/lit) was found to be more effective in controlling bod borer
  • The hymenopteran parasitoids, Bracon gelechiiae and Brachymeria sp cause parasitism up to 24 per cent on larvae.
Groundnut bud borer larva
7. Aphids: Aphis craccivora  

Symptoms of damage

  • Wilting of tender shoots during hot weather.
  • Stunting and distortion of the foliage and stems.
  • They excrete honeydew on which sooty molds flow forming a black coating.
  • Act as vector for peanut stripe virus and groundnut rosette virus complex.

Identification of the pest

  • Nymphs & Adult: Reddish to dark brown coloured with cornicles in the abdomen
DSC00600
Management

Apply anyone of the following insecticides

  • Chlorpyrifos 20%EC 1000 ml/ha
  • Imidacloprid 17.8% SL 100 -125 ml/ha
  • Methyl demeton 25% EC 1000 ml/ha
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8. Jassids: Empoasca kerri

Symptoms of damage

  • Nymphs and adults inject toxins resulting in whitening of veins and chlorotic patches especially at the tips of leaflets, in a typical 'V' shape.
  • Heavily attacked crop looks yellow and gives a scorched appearance known as 'hopper burn'.
Identification of the pest
  • Adult: Elongate, active, wedge shape, green insects.   

Management

  • Timely sowing of the crop and field sanitation.
  • Crop rotation with non host crop.
  • Intercropping with pearl millet
  • Avoid groundnut-castor inter crop, it increases the infestation.
  • Irrigate once to avoid prolonged mid season drought to prevent pre-harvest.
  • Spray dimethoate 30EC @ 650ml/ha or monochrotophos 36WSC @ 600ml/ha in 600 liter water.
leafhopper_jassids
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9. Thrips: Scirtothrips dorsalis 

A. Scirtothrips dorsalis            

Symptoms of damage

  • Tender leaves showing yellowish green patches on the upper surface and brown necrotic areas and silvery sheen on the lower surface.
  • Severe infestations cause stunted plants.
Identification of the pest
  • Nymphs: Yellowish
  • Adults: Dark coloured with fringed wings.

B. Caliothrips indicus

Symptoms of damage

  • Older /lower leaves showing white spots /marks or streaks intermingled with black excreta on the surface.
Identification of the pest
  • Nymphs and Adults:  Dark coloured with fringed wings.

C. Frankliniella schultzei

Symptoms of damage

  • Young/ terminal leaves showing white scars
  • Transmits peanut bud necrosis.
Identification of the pest
  • Nymphs: Yellowish
  • Adults: Dark coloured with fringed wings.

Management

  • Apply the following insecticide

    Quinalphos 25%EC 1400 ml/ha

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10. Jewel beetle: Sphenoptera indica        

Symptoms of damage

  • Wilting of plants in patches
  • The grub burrows into the stem close to the soil surface and kills the plant.
  • Infested fields show dead and dying plants, which when pulled up and examined grub/pupa can be seen in hollowed stem.
Identification
  • Larvae: Slow movers having globular head and elongated, dorso-ventrally flattened body. 
  • Adult:  Shiny beetle, 10 mm long and 3 mm wide.  

Management

  • Deep ploughing in the summer.
  • Use well decomposed organic manure.
  • Manual destruction of infested plant stems may help in reducing its population.
  • Conserve braconids, dragon flies, trichogrammatids, NPV, green muscardine fungus.
  •  Applying carbofuran granules@ 2.25 kg a.i /ha in the planting row can be effective prophylactic  measure
Jewel beetle life stages
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11. Termites:  Odontotermes spp     

Symptoms of damage

  • Wilting of plants in patches
  • Termites penetrate and hollow out the tap root and stem thus kill the plant.
  • Bore holes into pods and damage the seed.
  • It removes the soft corky tissue from between the veins of pods causing scarification, weaken the shells, make them liable to entry and growth of Aspergillus flavus that produces aflotoxins.
Identification of the pest
  • The termites are endemic in red and sandy soils.
  • These are social insects, live in termataria, in distinct castes, workers, king and queen.
  • Workers' are small (4 mm) and have a soft, white body and a brown head  

Management

  • Digging the termataria and destruction of the queen is most important in termite management.
  • Use well rotten organic manure.
  • Harvest the groundnut as soon as they are matured, early removal of the produce from the field will reduce the chances of termite damage to pods.
  • Clean cultivation
  • Irrigate the crop frequently
  • Thorough ploughing and frequent intercultural operations reduces termite damage.
  • Destruction of debris, termite nests and queen
  • Apply chlorpyriphos 20 EC or lindane 1.3% to control termites.
  • Dust chlorpyriphos @ 30-40 kg/ha in soil before sowing in endemic areas
  • Seed treatment with chlorpyriphos @ 6.5ml /kg of seed may reduce termite damage.
Pod damaged by the termite
12. White grubs : Holotrichia consanguinea, Holotrichia serrata

Symptoms of damage

  • The grubs feed roots and damage pods.
  • Grubs feed on fine rootlets, resulting in pale wilted plants, dying in patches.
Identification of the pest
  • Eggs:  White, almost round.
  • Larvae:  Young grubs are translucent, whitish yellow in colour , fleshy  ‘C’ – shaped
  • Adults: Dark brown beetle. Beetles emerge out of the soil within 3-4 days after the onset of rain.
White grub larvae

Management

Apply anyone of the following insecticides

  • Carbofuran 3%CG 33.3 kg/ha
  • Chlorpyrifos 20%EC 1125 ml/ha
  • Phorate 10%CG 25 kg/ha
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13. Pod borer:  Anisolabis stalli

Symptoms of damage

  • Young pods showing bore holes plugged with excreta
  • Sand partics without kernal.
Identification of the pest
  • Nymph: White in early stages and later turns brown
  • Adult: Dark brown to black with forceps like caudal cerci and white leg joints

Management

Apply any one of the following to the soil prior to sowing in
endemic areas :

  • Malathion 5 D 25 kg/ha
  • Carbofuran 3% CG 50 kg/ha
  • Repeat soil application of any one of the above dust formulations
    on the 40th day of sowing and incorporate in the soil during the
    earthing up.
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14. Pod bug: Elasmolomus - Aphanus sordidus

Symptoms of damage

  • Freshly harvested pods having shriveled kernels
Identification of the pest
  • Nymph: Pinkish
  • Adult: Dark brown bugs

Management

  • Apply any one of the following to the soil prior to sowing in endemic areas malathion 5 D 25 kg/ha, Quinalphos 25 % EC
  • Repeat soil application of any one of the above dust formulations on the 40th day of sowing and incorporate in the soil during the earthing up
Updated on June, 2014

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