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TNAU Agritech Portal :: Crop Protection

Crop: Ground nut

Scientific name: Arachis hypoea

Family: Fabaceae

 

Important pests of Ground Nut

 
1. Red Hairy caterpillars: Amsacta albistriga, A. moorei

Symptoms of damage

  • Caterpillars cause defoliation of the crop- all the leaves eaten away leaving the main stem alone.

Identification of the pest

  • Larvae: Hairy caterpillar reddish brown with black band on either end having long reddish brown hairs all over the body.
  • Adult: Moth with white wings.
  • Forewing - white with brownish streak all over and yellowish  streak along the anterior margin and head
  • Hind wing – white with black marking

A .moorei  

  • Forewing - white with brownish streak all over and reddish streak along the anterior margin and head 
http://www.jnkvv.nic.in/IPM%20Project/insects/Amsacta-albistriga-adult.jpg
http://www.icrisat.org/satrends/mar2006_files/Redcaterpillar_250by210.jpg
  Larva feeding

Management

  • Deep summer ploughing
  • Early sowing is done to escape insect pest damage.
  • Inter crop one row of castor for every 5 or 6 rows of groundnut.
  • Crop rotation with sorghum/pearl millet or maize should be followed.
  • Vegetative traps utilizing Jatropa (wild castor) or Ipomoea prevent the migration of the grown up larvae.
  • Irrigate once to avoid prolonged mid season drought to prevent pre-harvest infestation.
  • Install 12 light traps/ha or bonfire in endemic areas.
  • Collecting and killing of adult moths are found very effective.
  • Collection and destruction of egg masses in the fields around light trap areas.
  • Install 10-12 bird perches/ha.
  • Two hand or mechanical weeding at 15-20 days after sowing.
  • Spray A-NPV (2X 10^5 PIB/I) or Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt).
  • Release of Bracon hebetor @ 5000/ha. twice at 7-10 days interval.
  • Conserve dominant predators like Coccinella sp. and Menochilus sexmaculata and parasitoids like Chelonus spp.
  • Conserve the bio control population of spiders, long horned grasshoppers, preying mantids, robber fly, ants, green lace wing, damsel flies/dragon flies, flower bugs, shield bugs, lady bird beetles, ground beetle, predatory cricket, braconids, trichogrammatids, NPV, green muscardine fungus.
  • Inter cropping with pigeon pea, mung bean and soybean provides increase in population of spiders.
  • Population of coccinellids is higher on groundnut with maize, mung bean and soybean and Chrysoperla spp. is higher with maize and soybean intercrops.
  • Spray Carbaryl 50% WP or quinalphos 25 EC @ 1250 ml/ha or 500 ml of Nuvan (76%) 4 ml/ha to control full grown insect pests.
 
2. Groundnut leaf miner:   Aproaerema modicella

Symptoms of damage

  • Young larvae initially mine into the leaflets, feed on the mesophyll and form small brown blotches on the leaf.
  • Later stages larvae web the leaflets together and feed on them, remaining within the folds.
  • Severely attacked field looks "burnt" from a distance.

Identification of the pest

  • Eggs - Shiny white and are laid singly on the underside of the leaflets.
  • Larvae - Green in colour with dark head and prothroax
  • Adult - Brownish grey moth, 6 mm long with 10 mm wing spanForewings with white spot on the costal margin

 

 

DSC00619
Leaf miner larva inside the web DSC00619 DSC00594

Management

  • Stray planting of cowpea or soybean as trap crop.
  • Crop rotation with non leguminous crop is advised in case of severe recurring problem.
  • Crop rotation of groundnut with soybean and other leguminous crops should be avoided.
  • Collect and destroy egg masses and early instars larvae.
  • Install light trap @ 12/ha for mass trapping.
  • Release Trichogramma Chilonis @ 50000/ha twice (7-10 days interval).
  • Conserve the bio control population of spiders, long horned grasshoppers, preying mantids, robber fly, ants, green lace wing, damsel flies/dragon flies, flower bugs, shield bugs, lady bird beetles, ground beetle, predatory cricket, braconids, trichogrammatids, NPV, green muscardine fungus
  • Mulching with rice straw causes reduction in leaf miner incidence and increase the percentage parasitisation.
  • Intercropping groundnut with Pennisetum glacum enhances the parasitisation Goniozus spp. on leaf miner.
  • Effective control could be achieved if insecticide is applied at 45 and 70 days after planting.
  • Spray quinalphos 25 EC 2ml or methyldemeton 25 EC 1.6ml or dimethoate 30 EC 2ml per litre of water.
 
3. Bihar hairy caterpillar: Spilosoma (Diacrisia) obliqua

Symptoms of damage

  • Young larvae feed gregariously mostly on the under surface of the leaves.
  • Feed on leaves and cause loss by way of defoliation.
  • In severe cases only stems are left behind.

Identification of the pest

  • Eggs: Laid in clusters of 50-100, on the lower side of leaves.
  • Larva: Orange coloured with broad transverse band with tufts of yellow hairs that are dark at both ends
  • Pupa:  Forms a thin silken cocoon by interwoven shed hairs of the larvae.             
  • Adult: Crimson coloured moth with black dots and a red abdomen. Pinkish wings with numerous black spots

 

Bihar hairy caterpillar larvae

Management

  • Pre-monsoon deep ploughing (two/three times) will expose the hibernating pupae to sunlight and predatory birds.
  • Removal and destruction of alternate wild hosts and weeds which harbour the hairy caterpillars.
  • Grow trap crops like cowpea, castor and jatropha on field bunds to attract the caterpillars.
  • Irrigate once to avoid prolonged mid season drought to prevent pre-harvest infestation.
  • Setting up bonfires on field bunds during night.
  • Mass collection and destruction of eggs and just emerged caterpillars.
  • Place the twigs and leaves of calotropis, jatropha and papaya around the field to trap grown up caterpillars and destruction.
  • Conserve the bio control population of spiders, long horned grasshoppers, preying mantids, robber fly, ants, green lace wing, damsel flies/dragon flies, flower bugs, shield bugs, lady bird beetles, ground beetle, predatory cricket, braconids, trichogrammatids, NPV, green muscardine fungus
  • Use of NPV (nuclear polyhedrosis virus) on cloudy days at 500 LE/ha will be effective. Spraying of Bacillus thuringiensis is also advocated at 1 kg/ha where mulberry is not grown.
  • Apply safe chemical insecticides at recommended doses only if the insect population crosses the ETL.
  • Spraying of quinalphos 25 EC (2 ml/lit) or chlorpyriphos 20 EC (2.5 ml/lit) or Dichlorvos 76% EC (2.0 ml/lit) recommended when the caterpillars are younger.
 
4. Gram pod borer: Helicoverpa armigera

Symptoms of damage

  • Larvae feed on the foliage, prefers flowers and buds.
  • When tender leaf buds are eaten symmetrical holes or cuttings can be seen upon unfolding of leaflets.
Identification of the pest
  • Eggs: Spherical in shape and creamy white in colour, present singly
  • Larva: Shows colour variation from greenish to brown. It has dark brown grey lines on the body with lateral white lines and also has dark and pale bands.
  • Pupa: Brown in colour, occurs in soil, leaf, pod and crop debris

Adult

  • Light pale brownish yellow stout moth
  • Forewings – olive green to pale brown with a dark brown circular spot in the centre
  • Hind wings-   are pale smoky white with a broad blackish outer margin.
http://www.jnkvv.nic.in/IPM%20Project/groundnut/Larva.jpg

Management

  • Deep summer ploughing.
  • Intercrop one rows of red gram for every 5 or 6 rows
  • Install pheromone trap @ 5/ha
  • Use Trichogramma chilonis @ 1 lakh/ha or Chrysoperla carnea @ 50000/ha at 40 and 50 days after sowing of groundnut can effectively check the pest.
  • Apply HaNPV @ 250 LE/ha or B.t (Bacillus thuringiensis) 1 kg/ha or 5% NSKE for monitoring eggs and early instar larvae.
  • Conserve the bio control population of spiders, long horned grasshoppers, preying mantids, robber fly, ants, green lace wing, damsel flies/dragon flies, flower bugs, shield bugs, lady bird beetles, ground beetle, predatory cricket, braconids, trichogrammatids, NPV, green muscardine fungus .
  • spray any one of the following insecticide : quinolphos 2ml or chloropyriphos 3ml or Imidacloprid 2ml /lit of water
 
5. Tobacco caterpillar: Spodoptera litura

Symptoms of damage

  • Freshly hatched larvae feed gregariously, scraping the chlorophyll, soon disperse.
  • Sometimes the feeding is so heavy that only petioles and branches are left behind.
Identification of the pest
  • Egg: Egg masses appear golden brown
Larva
  • Pale greenish with dark marking.
  • Gregarious in the early stages

Adult

  • Forewings – brown colour with wavy white marking
  • Hind wings- white colour with a brown patch along the margin
Tobacco caterpillar larva on groundnut leaves

Management

  • Deep summer ploughing.
  • Early sowing to escape insect pest damage.
  • Irrigate once to avoid prolonged mid season drought
  • Planting castor or sunflower plants as trap crop for egg laying and destroying eggs or first instars larvae help in reducing the incidence.
  • The sunflower act as bird perches as well.
  • Install light trap.
  • Two hand or mechanical weeding at 15-20 days after sowing.
  • Use pheromone traps (5/ha) to monitor moth population.
  • Install 10-12 bird perches per ha.
  • Collection of egg masses/early instars larvae from trap crops.
  • Release of Telenomus remus @ 50000/ha. 4 times (7-10 days interval) based on pheromone trap catching.
  • Use SLNPV @ 250 LE (6X 109/LE)/ha or B.t. @1 k.g/ha, when large number of egg masses and early instars larvae are noticed.
  • Release Trichogramma chilonis @ 50000/ha. twice  (7-10 days interval) based on on pheromone trap observation.
  • Release of Bracon hebetor @ 5000/ha. twice at 7-10 days interval .
  • Spray insect pathogenic fungus Nomuraea rileyi @1013 spores/ha for controlling early instars.
  • Apply Methyl parathion 2% dust @ 20 kg/ha or spraying of monochrotophos 36 SL or quinolphos 25 EC @ 1500 ml or Dichlorvos 76% EC @1250 ml or trizophos 40EC @ 800 ml in 700-800 lit of water.
  • Poison bait with monocrotophos 36 SL or carbaryl, rice bran, jaggery and water can be used to control the grown up larvae.
 

6. Groundnut bud borer: Anarsia ephippias

Symptoms of damage

  •  The larva bores into the terminal buds and shoots and tip of the stem.
  •  The tender leaflets emerging from central spindle will show shot-hole symptoms initially.
  •  In severe infestation emerging leaflets will have only the midribs or several oblong feeding holes.
Identification of the pest
  • Larvae:  Chocolate brown in color and 10-15 mm long.
Groundnut bud borer larva

Management

  • Neem oil 3 per cent and leaf extract of Vitex negumdo (notchi) 5 per cent are effective against this pest.
  • Spraying of monocrotophos 36 WSC 0.5 per cent (1.5 ml/lit) was found to be more effective in controlling bod borer
  • The hymenopteran parasitoids, Bracon gelechiiae and Brachymeria sp cause parasitism up to 24 per cent on larvae.
 

7. Aphids: Aphis craccivora  

Symptoms of damage

  • Wilting of tender shoots during hot weather.
  • Stunting and distortion of the foliage and stems.
  • They excrete honeydew on which sooty molds flow forming a black coating.
  • Act as vector for peanut stripe virus and groundnut rosette virus complex.

Identification of the pest

  • Nymphs & Adult: Reddish to dark brown coloured with cornicles in the abdomen
DSC00600

Management

  • Timely sowing of the crop.
  • Handpicking and destruction of various insect stages and the affected plant parts.
  • Apply NSKE 5% (neem seed kernel extract) to control sucking pests.
  • Augment the release of Menochilus sexmaculata @ 1250/ha.
  • Conserve bio agents like flower bugs (anthocorids), lady bird beetles (coccinellids), praying mantids, hover flies (syrphids), green lace wing (chrysopids), long horned grass hoppers and spiders.
  • Young crop may be applied with monochrotophos 36 WSL 600ml/ha or dimethoate 30 EC @ 650ml/ha in 600 liter water.
  • Dusting of Chlorpyriphos 20% EC dust at 1 kg a.i. /ha would be effective in controlling aphids.
 

8. Jassids: Empoasca kerri

Symptoms of damage

  • Nymphs and adults inject toxins resulting in whitening of veins and chlorotic patches especially at the tips of leaflets, in a typical 'V' shape.
  • Heavily attacked crop looks yellow and gives a scorched appearance known as 'hopper burn'.
Identification of the pest
  • Adult: Elongate, active, wedge shape, green insects.   
leafhopper_jassids

Management

  • Timely sowing of the crop and field sanitation.
  • Crop rotation with non host crop.
  • Intercropping with pearl millet
  • Avoid groundnut-castor inter crop, it increases the infestation.
  • Irrigate once to avoid prolonged mid season drought to prevent pre-harvest.
  • Spray dimethoate 30EC @ 650ml/ha or monochrotophos 36WSC @ 600ml/ha in 600 liter water.
 

9. Thrips: Scirtothrips dorsalis 

A. Scirtothrips dorsalis            

Symptoms of damage

  • Tender leaves showing yellowish green patches on the upper surface and brown necrotic areas and silvery sheen on the lower surface.
  • Severe infestations cause stunted plants.
Identification of the pest
  • Nymphs: Yellowish
  • Adults: Dark coloured with fringed wings.

B. Caliothrips indicus

Symptoms of damage

  • Older /lower leaves showing white spots /marks or streaks intermingled with black excreta on the surface.
Identification of the pest
  • Nymphs and Adults:  Dark coloured with fringed wings.
C. Frankliniella schultzei

Symptoms of damage

  • Young/ terminal leaves showing white scars
  • Transmits peanut bud necrosis.
Identification of the pest
  • Nymphs: Yellowish
  • Adults: Dark coloured with fringed wings.

Management

  • Spray monochrotophos 36 WSC 600 ml/ha or dimethoate 30 EC 650ml/ha or methyldemeton 25 EC 600 ml in 600 lit of water.
  • Spray per acre monocrotophos 320ml mixed with neem oil 1lit and 1kg soap powder mixed in 200lit of water twice at 10days interval.
 

10. Jewel beetle: Sphenoptera indica        

Symptoms of damage

  • Wilting of plants in patches
  • The grub burrows into the stem close to the soil surface and kills the plant.
  • Infested fields show dead and dying plants, which when pulled up and examined grub/pupa can be seen in hollowed stem.
Identification
  • Larvae: Slow movers having globular head and elongated, dorso-ventrally flattened body. 
  • Adult:  Shiny beetle, 10 mm long and 3 mm wide.  
Jewel beetle life stages

Management

  • Deep ploughing in the summer.
  • Use well decomposed organic manure.
  • Manual destruction of infested plant stems may help in reducing its population.
  • Conserve braconids, dragon flies, trichogrammatids, NPV, green muscardine fungus.
  •  Applying carbofuran granules@ 2.25 kg a.i /ha in the planting row can be effective prophylactic  measure
 

11. Termites:  Odontotermes spp     

Symptoms of damage

  • Wilting of plants in patches
  • Termites penetrate and hollow out the tap root and stem thus kill the plant.
  • Bore holes into pods and damage the seed.
  • It removes the soft corky tissue from between the veins of pods causing scarification, weaken the shells, make them liable to entry and growth of Aspergillus flavus that produces aflotoxins.
Identification of the pest
  • The termites are endemic in red and sandy soils.
  • These are social insects, live in termataria, in distinct castes, workers, king and queen.
  • Workers' are small (4 mm) and have a soft, white body and a brown head  
Pod damaged by the termite

Management

  • Digging the termataria and destruction of the queen is most important in termite management.
  • Use well rotten organic manure.
  • Harvest the groundnut as soon as they are matured, early removal of the produce from the field will reduce the chances of termite damage to pods.
  • Clean cultivation
  • Irrigate the crop frequently
  • Thorough ploughing and frequent intercultural operations reduces termite damage.
  • Destruction of debris, termite nests and queen
  • Apply chlorpyriphos 20 EC or lindane 1.3% to control termites.
  • Dust chlorpyriphos @ 30-40 kg/ha in soil before sowing in endemic areas
  • Seed treatment with chlorpyriphos @ 6.5ml /kg of seed may reduce termite damage.
 

12. White grubs : Holotrichia consanguinea, Holotrichia serrata

Symptoms of damage

  • The grubs feed roots and damage pods.
  • Grubs feed on fine rootlets, resulting in pale wilted plants, dying in patches.
Identification of the pest
  • Eggs:  White, almost round.
  • Larvae:  Young grubs are translucent, whitish yellow in colour , fleshy  ‘C’ – shaped
  • Adults: Dark brown beetle. Beetles emerge out of the soil within 3-4 days after the onset of rain.
White grub larvae

Management

  • Deep ploughing in summer.
  • Always use well decomposed organic manure it attracts the adult beetles.
  • Partial or complete lopping of host plants and retaining of a few most preferred host trees in the area for congregation of white grub adults.
  • Crop rotation with sorghum/pearl millet or maize.
  • Early sowing to avoid damage due to insect pest.
  • Standing crops of fodder, sugarcane etc. are also to be protected.
  • Collection and destruction of white grub adults from host trees around the field.
  • Spray should be undertaken as a community approach and should be repeated after every rainfall till the middle of July.
  • Spraying the neem trees close to the field with chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 2 ml/lit of water soon after first monsoon showers for 3-4 days in the late evening hours kills the adult beetles and reduces root grub infestation.
  • Seed treatment with chlorpyriphos 20 EC (6.5 to 12.5 ml/kg seed) is found to be effective.
  • In case of severe infestation apply phorate @ 10 kg/ha.
 

13. Pod borer:  Anisolabis stalli

Symptoms of damage

  • Young pods showing bore holes plugged with excreta
  • Sand particles or discoloured pulps
  • Pods without kernal.
Identification of the pest
  • Nymph: White in early stages and later turns brown
  • Adult: Dark brown to black with forceps like caudal cerci and white leg joints

Management

  • Apply any one of the following to the soil prior to sowing in endemic areas :

malathion 5 D 25 kg/ha, Quinalphos 25% EC kg/ha

  • Repeat soil application of any one of the above dust formulations on the 40th day of sowing and incorporate in the soil during the earthing up.
 

14. Pod bug: Elasmolomus - Aphanus sordidus

Symptoms of damage

  • Freshly harvested pods having shriveled kernels
Identification of the pest
  • Nymph: Pinkish
  • Adult: Dark brown bugs

Management

  • Apply any one of the following to the soil prior to sowing in endemic areas malathion 5 D 25 kg/ha, Quinalphos 25 % EC
  • Repeat soil application of any one of the above dust formulations on the 40th day of sowing and incorporate in the soil during the earthing up


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