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Agricultural crops :: Pulses :: Greengram

Greengram Diseases

Anthracnose - Colletotrichum lindemuthianum

Bacterial Leaf Blight - Xanthomonas phaseoli

Cercospora leaf spot - Cercospora canescens

Leaf crinkle disease - Leaf Curl Virus

Macrophomina Blight - Macrophomina phaseolina


Yellow mosaic - Mungbean yellow mosaic virus

Powdery Mildew - Erysiphe polygoni

Root Rot and Leaf Blight - Rhizoctonia solani

Rust - Uromyces phaseoli

Anthracnose: Colletotrichum lindemuthianum

Symptom
  • The fungus attacks all aerial part parts and at any stage of plant growth.
  • Symptoms are circular, black, sunken spots with dark center and bright red orange margins on leaves and pods.
  • In severe infections, the affected parts wither off. Seedlings get blighted due to infection soon after seed germination.

Management
  • Seed treatment with Carbendazim 2g/kg of seed.
  • Spray Mancozeb 2g or Carbendazim 0.5g/lit.



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Bacterial Leaf Blight: Xanthomonas phaseoli

Symptom
  • It is characterized by many brown, dry and raised spots on the leaf surface.
  • When the disease is severe several such spots coalesce, the leaves become yellow and fall off prematurely.
  • The lower surface of the leaf appears red in colour due to the formation of raised spots.
  • The bacterium is also seed-borne
  • The stem and pods also get infected.

Management
  • Use disease free seed
  • Destruction of debris and stubbles.
  • Soak the seeds in 500 ppm Streptocycline solution for 30 min. before sowing followed by two sprays of Streptocycline combined with 3 g of Copper Oxychloride per litre at an interval of 12 days is recommended.



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Cercospora leaf spot: Cercospora canescens

Symptom
  • This is an important disease of green gram and is usually occurs in a severe form, causing heavy losses in yield.
  • Spots produced are small, numerous in number with pale brown centre and reddish brown margin. Similar spots also occur on branches and pods.
  • Under favourable environmental conditions, severe leaf spotting and defoliation occurs at the time of flowering and pod formation.

Management
  • Spray Carbendazim 500 g/ha or Mancozeb 1000 g/ha



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Leaf crinkle disease: Leaf Curl Virus

Symptom
  • The earliest symptoms appear on youngest leaves as chlorosis around some lateral veins and its branches near the margin.
  • The leaves show curling of margin downwards.
  • Some of the leaves show twisting.
  • The veins show reddish brown discolouration on the under surface which also extends to the petiole.
  • Plants showing symptoms within 5 weeks after sowing invariably remain stunted and majority of  these die due to top necrosis within a week or two.
  • Plants infected in late stages of growth do not show severe curling and twisting of the leaves but show conspicuous venial chlorosis any where on the leaf lamina.  
  • The disease develops in the fields mainly through seed or rubbing of diseased leaves with the healthy ones

Management
  • Seed treatment with Dimethoate (or) Imidacloprid @ 5 ml /kg
  • Growing sorghum as border crop
  • Installation of yellow sticky traps 12 nos/ha
  • Rogue out the infected plants up to 45 days
  • Foliar spray of notchi leaf extract 10% at 30 DAS or neem formulation 3 ml/lit.
  • Spray methyl demeton 25 EC 500 ml/ha or Dimethoate 30 EC 500 ml/ha or Thiamethoxam 75 WS 1g/3 lit and repeat after 15 days, if necessary.



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Macrophomina Blight: Macrophomina phaseolina

Symptom
  • In rice fallows, symptoms appear on 4 weeks  old crop as raised white cankers at the base of the stem.
  • These enlarge gradually and turn as raised brown streaks spreading upwards.
  • Plants are stunted and leaves are dark green, mottled and reduced in size.
  • Normal leaves on the affected plants drop suddenly and dry.
  • Flowering and podding are greatly reduced.
  • When the affected plants are split/open vertically from the collar downwards, reddish discolouration of the internal tissues is clearly visible while the internal root tissues appear white.
  • The pathogen can survive through seed, soil, diseased plant parts and host plants.
  • The severity of the disease increases with the increase in temperatures.
  • Fungus survives in upper layers of the soil and enters plant through stem.

Management
  • Deep ploughing in summer.
  • Follow crop rotation
  • Soil amendment with farm yard manure @ 12.5 tonnes/ha is helpful in reducing the incidence of the disease
  • Destroy the diseased plant debris by burning of burying in the soil.
  • Seed treatment with T. viride @4g/kg or P. fluorescens @ 10g/ kg of seed or Carbendazim or Thiram 2g/kg of seed.
  • Spot drenching with Carbendazim 1g/lit or P. fluorescens / T. viride 2.5 kg/ha with 50 kg FYM.



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Yellow mosaic -Mungbean yellow mosaic virus

Symptom
  • Initially mild scattered yellow spots appear on young leaves. Spots gradually increase in size and ultimately some leaves turn completely yellow.
  • Infected leaves also show necrotic symptoms.
  • Diseased plants are stunted, mature late and produce very few flowers and pods.
  • Pods of infected plants are reduced in size and turn yellow in colour.
  • The disease is transmitted by the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

Management
  • Seed treatment with Dimethoate (or) Imidacloprid @ 5 ml /kg
  • Growing sorghum as border crop
  • Installation of yellow sticky traps 12 nos/ha
  • Rogue out the infected plants up to 45 days
  • Foliar spray of notchi leaf extract 10% at 30 DAS or neem formulation 3 ml/lit.
  • Spray methyl demeton 25 EC 500 ml/ha or Dimethoate 30 EC 500 ml/ha or Thiamethoxam 75 WS 1g/3 lit and repeat after 15 days, if necessary.



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Powdery Mildew:  Erysiphe polygoni

Symptom
  • Initially mild scattered yellow spots appear on young leaves. Spots gradually increase in size and ultimately some leaves turn completely yellow.
  • Infected leaves also show necrotic symptoms.
  • Diseased plants are stunted, mature late and produce very few flowers and pods.
  • Pods of infected plants are reduced in size and turn yellow in colour.
  • The disease is transmitted by the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

Management
  • Spray NSKE 5% or Neem oil 3% twice at 10 days interval from initial disease appearance.
  • Spray Eucalyptus leaf extract 10% at initiation of the disease and 10 days later.
  • Spray Carbendazim 500 g or wettable sulphur 1500 g/ha



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Root Rot and Leaf Blight: Rhizoctonia solani

Symptom
  • Initially mild scattered yellow spots appear on young leaves. Spots gradually increase in size and ultimately some leaves turn completely yellow.
  • Infected leaves also show necrotic symptoms.
  • Diseased plants are stunted, mature late and produce very few flowers and pods.
  • Pods of infected plants are reduced in size and turn yellow in colour.
  • The disease is transmitted by the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

Management
  • Seed treatment with Trichoderma viride 4 g/kg or Pseudomonas fluorescens 10 g/kg
  • Basal application of zinc sulphate 25 kg/ha
  • Basal application of neem cake @ 150 kg/ha
  • Soil application P. fluorescens or T. viride – 2.5 kg / ha + 50 kg of well decomposed FYM or sand
  • Spot drenching of Carbendazim @ 1 gm/ lit



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Rust :Uromyces phaseoli

Symptom
  • The disease appears as circular reddish brown pustules which appear more commonly on the underside of the leaves, less abundant on pods and sparingly on stems.
  • When leaves are severely infected, both the surfaces are fully covered by rust pustules.
  • Shriveling followed by defoliation resulting in yield losses.

Management
  • Spray Mancozeb 1000g or wettable sulphur 1500 g/ha.

Updated on april, 2014


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