Fertile soil has the following characteristics:
- It is rich in nutrients necessary for basic plant nourishment. This includes nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
- It consists of adequate minerals such as boron, chlorine, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, magnesium, molybdenum, sulphur and zinc. These minerals promote plant nutrition.
- It contains soil organic matter that improves the structure of the soil. This enables the soil to retain more moisture.
- The soil pH is in the range 6.0 to 6.8.
- It has a good soil structure which results in well-drained soil.
- It consists of a variety of micro-organisms that support plant growth.
- It often contains large amounts of topsoil